The Plurinational State of Bolivia (Spanish: Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), referred to as Bolivia, is a landlocked country located in central South America is adjacent to Brazil, Peru, Chile, Argentina, and Paraguay. Its legal capital is Sucre, and its actual government The station is La Paz. The country is dominated by plateau topography, with a mean altitude of over 3000 meters, making it the very best average altitude country within the world.
Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire in the 13th century. It became a Spanish colony in 1538 and became independent on August 6, 1825, Bolivia is a member of the Association of South American Nations. With abundant natural resources, it is called ” the donkey sitting on the gold mine “. In addition to the famous mineral deposits, there are well-known ruins of the Inca Empire. In addition, the country also has the second-largest natural gas field in South America after Venezuela.
The main railway and highway networks are concentrated in the west, and remote areas rely on air communication. The infrastructure is lacking and the tourism industry is relatively backward.
It was part of the Inca Empire in the 13th century. Inca Empire territory Bolivia was conquered by Spain at the end of the 15th century and became a Spanish colony in 1538. It is known as Peru in history and belongs to the Governorate of La Plata, Spain.
Bolivia in the 18th century between the Latin American wars of independence in the one from Venezuela’s Caracas to the national hero – Bolivar rescue and independent, so the country will name to his name in the name. On August 6, 1825, it declared independence from Spain and named it the Bolivarian Republic, which was later changed to its current name. Formed a federation with Peru in 1836, and collapsed in 1839 due to the Chilean invasion.
In 1863, abundant saltpeter deposits were discovered in Atacama Province on the Pacific coast. In 1879, Chile sent troops to occupy the mining area, Bolivia and Peru united, and the ” Pacific War ” broke out with Chile. Bolivia was defeated in 1883. In 1904, it ceded the Pacific coast area rich in saltpeter to Chile. Bolivia lost its only coastal province, including the important port Antofagasta, and has since become a landlocked country. But Bolivia has always claimed sovereignty over this place and claimed that the 1904 treaty was invalid.
In 1932, Bolivia and Paraguay broke out in the Chaco War for oil resources in the North Chaco area. Bolivia was defeated and lost a large area of territory.
The People’s Armed Uprising broke out in April 1952, and the leader of the Nationalist Revolutionary Movement Pas Esden Solo became president. Since then, military coups are frequent and therefore the political situation has been turbulent for an extended time. In October 1983, modern bourgeois democracy with South American characteristics was restored.
On December 18, 2005, the presidential election was held. Aymara Indian, leader of the Bolivian struggle for socialism, Evo Morales, won the election with 53.75% of the vote and took office on January 22, 2006. He was the country’s first Native American president and the first left-wing president of Bolivia. The establishment of the Bolivian state with progressive socialism (ie, Indian socialism) as the basic value concept began.
On January 25, 2009, the 16th constitution in the history of the Republic of Bolivia, and the first constitution in a referendum, was passed with 61.8% of the votes. On March 26, 2009, Morales signed the Supreme Decree announcing that the original country name “Republic of Bolivia” (República de Bolivia) was changed to “El Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia” (El Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia).
Bolivia is located in central South America, a landlocked country. It borders Brazil to the northeast, Paraguay to the southeast, Argentina to the south, Chile to the southwest, and Peru to the west. It is an inland plateau country in South America. The country covers an area of 1,098,581 square kilometers, ranking fifth in South America and eighth in America.
The eastern and northeastern parts are mostly the alluvial plains of the Amazon River, accounting for about 60% of the country’s area; the central part is a valley area, belonging to the eastern foot of the Andes, where agriculture is developed, and many important cities are concentrated here; the west is the Bolivian Plateau, with an average elevation of 1000 Meters above.
The eastern and central regions have a tropical grassland climate, and the western mountainous region transitions to a subtropical climate, and the inland plateau has a mountainous climate. The climate in most areas is dry and cool; the annual precipitation decreases from 2000 mm to below 100 mm from northeast to west.
Water system distribution
The main rivers are Beni, Mamore, and San Miguel. On the border between Peru and there is Lake Titicaca, altitude 3812 meters, is the largest in South America
The lake and the world’s tallest large-scale freshwater lake can be navigable all year round. It is the main communication route between the two countries and the birthplace of ancient culture in South America.
Natural resources – mineral
The Precambrian region of eastern Bolivia occupies 30% of the country’s land area, and the western plateau mountainous area belongs to the mountainous strata belt. Therefore, it is considered to be one of the regions with the richest mineral deposits in the world.
The main mineral resources are gold, silver, copper, iron, manganese, tin, aluminum, zinc, antimony, tungsten, bismuth, magnesium, lithium, uranium, niobium, tantalum, sulfur, gypsum, asbestos, phosphorus, boron, cadmium, barium, Indium, germanium, mercury, cobalt, arsenic, mica, marble, crystal, two-color crystal, calcite, multicolor onyx, sodalite, oil, natural gas, etc.
Although Bolivia is a traditional producer of mineral products, due to the limitations of capital and technology and many other factors, so far there has not been a systematic survey of the distribution and reserves of national mineral resources. Therefore, it is difficult to investigate the exact reserves of various mineral resources. The main reserves of mineral resources are now introduced as follows:
1. Gold. Gold mines are distributed throughout Bolivia. The proven reserves are 4,187,148,780 cubic meters of minerals, with an average grade of 0.276%, and 1,156 tons of pure gold; prospective reserves: 2,415 million cubic meters of minerals, with a grade of 0.28%, and 676 tons of pure gold. From the 1960s to the 1990s, the Southern Company of the United States explored gold mines in Guana and Teobant, La Paz, and produced up to 1.5 tons of gold. Many private cooperatives choose gold on rivers and beaches, and they often encounter natural gold nuggets of 50 grams or more.
2. Copper. Copper mines are mainly distributed in the 160,000 square kilometers copper belt in the Andes Mountains bordering Peru, Chile, and Argentina. The proven reserves are 26,657 tons and the prospective reserves are 247,934 tons.
3. Tin. Tin ore often forms composite ore with silver, lead, and zinc. The proven reserves are 62064879 tons of minerals, with an average grade of 1.8%, equivalent to 671831 tons of refined tin. Prospective reserves are 60,712,802 tons, with an average grade of 0.73%, equivalent to 441,684 tons of refined tin. The reserves of glass tin account for 25% of the world’s total reserves.
4. Silver. The proven reserves are 14,764,893 tons of minerals, with an average grade of 4.32DM, equivalent to 6,381 tons of refined silver. The prospective reserves are 38,167,790 tons of minerals, with an average grade of 4.01DM, equivalent to 15,314 tons of refined silver.
5. Lead. The proven reserves contain 18,321,711 tons of minerals, with an average grade of 3.02%, equivalent to 553,746 tons of refined lead. The prospective reserves contain 3,362,1976 tons of minerals, with an average grade of 3.19%, equivalent to 1,073,666 tons of refined lead.
6. Zinc. The proven reserves are 40,604,533 tons of minerals, with an average grade of 9.65%, equivalent to 3919714 tons of refined zinc. The prospective reserves contain 43876,000 tons of minerals, with an average grade of 12.27%, which is equivalent to 5383600 tons of refined zinc.
7. Antimony. Antimony reserves in Bolivia account for 14% of the world’s total reserves, ranking second in the world. The proven reserves contain 1,121,123 tons of minerals, with an average grade of 8.63%, equivalent to 96,781 tons of refined antimony.
8. Tungsten. The proven reserves are 3,939,662 tons of minerals, the average grade of tungsten trioxide is 0.61%, and the reserves of tungsten trioxide are 24010 tons. Prospective reserves, containing 9,808,642 tons of minerals, with an average grade of 0.64%, and reserves of 63,138 tons.
9. Bismuth. The proven reserves are 306,772 tons of minerals, with an average grade of 1.5%, equivalent to 4,606 tons of refined bismuth. Prospective reserves, containing 6.5 million tons of minerals, with an average grade of 1.04%, equivalent to 67,700 tons of refined bismuth.
10. Iron. The reserves are 45 billion tons, second only to Brazil in Latin America. The largest iron ore is located in the Museum mine on the border with Brazil. The average grade is 50%. Proved reserves account for about 50% of unproven reserves.
11. Manganese. Manganese ore is distributed in the east and west of Bolivia, but none of them is mined. Among them, the Mudon Mine in the east is the most famous. It contains 20 million tons of minerals, with an average grade of 50%, equivalent to 10 million tons of metallic manganese.
12. Magnesium carbonate. Mainly distributed in the central Chabari area. The proven reserves contain 1.5 million tons of minerals, with an average grade of 70%, equivalent to 1.05 million tons of magnesium carbonate. The prospective reserves are 20.22 million tons, with an average grade of 64.66%, equivalent to 13.07 million tons of magnesium carbonate.
13. Lithium. It is mainly distributed in the salt lakes of Potosi Province, with reserves of 8.9 million tons.
14. Asbestos. An asbestos mine with commercial development value is located in the Chabari area of Cochabamba Province. The proven reserves are 2 million tons, with an average grade of 1:15, equivalent to 133,333 tons of asbestos. Prospective reserves, containing 200 million tons of minerals, equivalent to 10 million tons of asbestos.
15. Natural gas. As of 2002, the proved reserves were 273.6 billion cubic feet, the prospective reserves 243.9 billion cubic feet, and the potential reserves 248.7 billion cubic feet. A total of 771.6 billion cubic feet.
16. Petroleum. As of 2002, proved reserves were 447 million barrels, prospective reserves were 452.1 million barrels, and potential reserves were 473.9 million barrels. A total of 1.373 billion barrels.
Rich in mineral resources, mainly tin, antimony, tungsten, silver, zinc, lead, copper, nickel, iron, gold, etc. Rich in minerals, tin reserves are 1.15 million tons, ranking second in the world; iron reserves are 45 billion tons, second only to Brazil in Latin America; lithium reserves are 100 million tons, ranking first in the world.
Bolivia is rich in oil and natural gas resources. The proven oil reserves are 929 million barrels, and the proven natural gas reserves as of 2013 are 52.3 trillion cubic feet.
Rich in resources, the forest covers an area of 530,000 square kilometers (53 million hectares). The main wood species are Native species-Bolivian tiger cat Mahogany, red juniper, American oak, sandbox wood, heavy ant wood, yibei, and dragon phoenix.
Bolivia covers an area of about 109 million hectares (1.09 million square kilometers), of which 53 million hectares are covered by forest, accounting for 48% of the country’s land area. Mainly located in the provinces of Santa Cruz, Beni, La Paz, and Pando, the above four provinces account for 76% of the country’s forest area
Among the 53 million hectares, 8.48 million hectares of forest land has been included in sustainable development. As of December 2006, Bolivia’s certified forest area has reached 2.209 million hectares. The certified tropical natural forest area ranks first in the world, and the certified forest land has been included in the sustainable development system.
Bolivia accounts for about 1.28% of the world’s total forest coverage, ranking fifth among American countries, after Canada, Brazil, the United States, and Peru. In terms of tropical rain forest coverage, Bolivia ranks sixth, and the top five countries are Brazil, Congo, Indonesia, Peru, and India in order. Bolivia’s forest coverage is ranked tenth in the world.
Department Bolivia landlocked country has only 14,197 square kilometers and 24,201 square kilometers of water surface pond area, fishery resources are relatively scarce, freshwater fish production only, are trout, silverside fish, and so on.
Bolivia is rich in hydropower resources. The country’s potentially developable hydropower installed capacity is 39,850 MW. As of 2013, the developed installed capacity is 480 MW, and the development level is only 1.2%. The potential for hydropower development is huge. Bolivia is also rich in wind and solar resources. The maximum wind speed in La Paz is 16 meters 7 seconds.
The country is divided into 9 provinces, their names and capitals are: La Paz ( La Paz ), Pando ( Covéja ), Beni ( Trinidad ), Chuquisaca ( Sucre ), Cochabamba ( Cochabamba ), Oruro ( Oruro ), Potosí ( Potosi ), Santa Cruz ( Santa Cruz ), Tarija ( Tarija )
The seat of the government and parliament, the country’s largest city and political, economic, and cultural center, with a population of 2,741,600. The city center is 3660 meters above sea level, the highest in the world. The high seat of government. La Paz was built in 1548 and means “City of Peace” in Spanish.
The legal capital, the seat of the Supreme Court, has a population of 284,000 and an altitude of 2,790 meters. 1538 founding of the city, formerly known as Chuquisaca. In 1809, the city broke out in South America’s first uprising against Spanish rule. In 1825, Bolivia declared its independence here.
It was designated as the capital in 1826. In 1839, it was renamed to commemorate the second President of Bolivia, General Antonio Jose Sucre. Sucre moved the central government, presidential palace, and parliament hall to La Paz in 1898, while the Supreme Court stayed in Sucre. Sucre has now been included in the UNESCO Cultural Heritage List
Founded in 1561, with a population of 2.7762 million, it is a new industrial and commercial city, the country’s second-largest economic and cultural center, and the capital of Santa Cruz Province. Located in the eastern plain, 437 meters above sea level, the annual average temperature is 23.8.
The third-largest city in the country, the capital of Cochabamba Province. Located in the valley region of central Bolivia, it is an important transportation hub. The existing population is 1,938,400, and the altitude is 2,558 meters. 
The Plurinational State of Bolivia (English: The Plurinational States of Bolivia; Spanish: El Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia) is abbreviated as Bolivia, and the name of the country is named after the outstanding leader of the American War of Independence, Simon Bolivar.
The national flag of Bolivia was inaugurated on October 31, 1851. The national flag was rectangular with a length-to-width ratio of 3:2. The flag surface is composed of three parallel equal rectangles of red, yellow, and green from top to bottom, with the national emblem painted in the middle. The original red symbolizes dedication to the country, yellow symbolizes hope, and green symbolizes the sacred land. Now divided
Don’t represent the animals, minerals, and plants of the glass. The national flag with the national emblem is used for formal occasions, and the national flag without the national emblem is used for general occasions.
The national emblem of Bolivia is oval in the middle
There are the sun, mountain peaks, bread tree, llama, grain, and other patterns on the round surface. There are ten five-pointed stars in the lower half of the circle, representing the nine provinces that makeup Bolivia and the coastal provinces taken by Chile; the upper half says “Bolivia” in Spanish.
Three national flags are hung on both sides of the oval; beam sticks and weapons are crossed on the back to symbolize authority; the beam stick on the left has a “hat of freedom” at the top. At the upper end of the oval is a large vulture called a condor, symbolizing power and freedom. Both sides of the eagle are decorated with laurel branches and olive branches, which represent the people’s pride in national freedom and the desire to live in harmony with the people of other countries.
” Bolivians, Favorable Destiny “
Lyrics: Bolivians, our wish finally comes with a good destiny, freedom has come to the motherland, and we have ended our slavery. Yesterday was the turbulent atmosphere of war and the terrible forest of bullets, but today it is a beautiful peaceful tune. The singing of unity sings into the clouds. In order to maintain the honor of the motherland, we issue a new solemn oath, “The free people would rather die than surrender! “
National flower – sunflower
The total population is 10.624 million. The urban population is 6.574 million, accounting for 65% of the total population, and the rural population is 3.454 million, accounting for 35% of the total population.
Bolivia is a multi-ethnic country with mainly indigenous peoples, including Indians of various ethnic groups; Mestizos: European and African immigrants and indigenous people
Bolivians in the fair
The mixed descendants of Bolivia (about 30% of the population of Bolivia) and European and African immigrants (about 15% of the total population). According to statistics, in Bolivia, a total of 37 indigenous communities, Quechua people up to and Aida Mara human population were 155.8 million and 127.9 million, Guarani 7.8 million.
According to the Constitution, Bolivia is a democratic republic. The legislative, executive, and judicial powers are separated and the presidential system is implemented.
The president is head of state and government summit, also the commander of the armed forces is directly elected, it can not be re-elected. . The Cabinet is the executive branch of the government and is directly led by the President. The establishment of the vice president is restored; the governors of provinces and mayors are directly elected; the freedom of personal safety, belief, association, labor, thought, and education are guaranteed, and the state is responsible for the respect of human rights.
President of Bolivia
It was promulgated in 1826 and revised three times in 1967, 1994, and 2009. The Constitution of the Republic stipulates that the state is a presidential republic, and the president and vice president are directly elected. The presidential term is 5 years and cannot be re-elected, but can be elected once every other term; the vice president cannot be elected president or vice president in the next term.
On January 25, 2009, Bolivia held a referendum on a new constitution and a referendum on restrictions on large real estate. The new constitution was passed with a high approval rate of 61.47%, and most voters supported a limit of 5,000 hectares of land owned by individuals. The main ones are:
(1) Emphasizes the nature of Bolivia’s multi-ethnic state, gives citizens more rights, and the government should undertake more obligations.
(2) The establishment of a four-power separation political system.
Indians are more valued than before. They propose to establish a multi-ethnic electoral institution as the fourth type of state authority in addition to the administrative, legislative, and judicial power organs.
(3) The president and vice president can be re-elected once.
(4) Change the current administrative division system and implement an autonomous system that conforms to the Constitution.
(5) The state power plays an important role in the economy, adopting a compound economic model, restricting large real estate, and dual land leases.
(6) Regarding follow-up legislation and future constitutional amendments, if the entire constitution is amended or the fundamental content is involved, it must be carried out by the aboriginal plenipotentiary constitutional assembly.
The Multinational Legislative Assembly is composed of the Senate and House of Representatives. Every five years, the election is held at the same time as the presidential election. The parliament Represents 130 seats and 36 Senate. The chairman of the legislative assembly is concurrently served by the vice president.
Presidential Cabinet System. The head of government President.he is the head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. 2015 the current government was established. It was reorganized three times in January 2015, February 2017, and January 2018
It is composed of the Vice President and the following 20 ministers: Foreign Minister Diego Parry Rodriguez ( Diego PARY Rodriguez, Minister of the Presidency Alfredo RADA, Interior Minister Carlos Gustavo ROMERO Bonifaz, Defense Minister Javier Javier ZAVALETA López, Minister of Justice and Anti-Corruption Hector ARCE, Minister of Education Roberto AGUILAR, Minister of Health Adriana Can Adriana CAMPERO Nava
In November 2015, a new judiciary judge was directly elected. It is composed of 56 members including the chief justice, the judges of the Agricultural Environment Court, the judges of the Constitutional Court, and the members of the judiciary committee, with the indigenous judges making up the majority.
José Antonio Revilla is the President of the Supreme Court, Petronilo Flores Condori is the President of the Constitutional Court, and the Attorney-General The congress is elected for a term of six years and cannot be re-elected. The current Attorney General Ramiro José Guerrero Peñaranda (Ramiro José GUERRERO Peñaranda).
The main political parties are:
(1) Movement for Socialism (Movimiento Al Socialismo): Established in 1995. The ruling party, the largest political force in the parliament, is an emerging left-wing party with the Coca Nong Union as the main body, the chairman of the party is President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (Juan Evo MORALES Ayma).
(2) the Democratic Unionist Union (Unidad Demócrata): the largest opposition party, in June 2014 by the “National Unity Party” (Unidad Nacional) and “Social Democratic Movement” (Movimiento Demócrata Social) merger, advocated maintaining the middle class and businesses The leader of the party is Samuel Doria MEDINA, the “Cement King” of Bolivia.
(3) Christian Democratic Party (Partido Demócrata Cristiano): Opposition party, established in February 1954. Advocating reform of the existing economic model, maintaining social stability, and promoting production development. The leader of the party is former President Jorge Quiroga (Jorge QUIROGA).
Other major political parties are: New Republican Force Party, Citizens Solidarity League, Free Bolivian Movement, Revolutionary Left, Christian Democratic Party, “April Nine” Revolutionary Vanguard Party, Socialist Party, Bolivian Communist Party, etc
The President: News from La Paz on November 10, 2019: Bolivian President Morales announced his resignation on the 10th due to irregularities in the presidential election.
Vice President and Speaker: Alvaro Garcia Linera (Alvaro GARCIA Linera). He took office on January 22, 2006, for a five-year term. In December 2009, he was re-elected successfully.
economic Overview – industry
A world-renowned exporter of mineral products, rich in minerals such as lithium, tin, antimony, gold, silver, copper, iron, manganese, tungsten, and zinc. Since the Morales government took office, it has abandoned neoliberal economic policies, strengthened state intervention in the economy, promoted the nationalization of pillar industries such as oil, natural gas, mining, telecommunications, and electricity, and focused on promoting energy and mining production and infrastructure construction.
Invest in natural gas development and promote land reform. Relevant measures have achieved positive results, with steady growth in fiscal and tax revenue and stable macroeconomic operations. In recent years, the economic growth rate has been higher than the regional average. In the first half of 2018, Bolivia’s economic growth rate was 4.6%.
The main industries are food, textile, leather, wine, cigarettes, and other processing industries. Possess certain non-ferrous metal smelting capacity and owns the Vinto smelter, which is known as the third-largest in the world. In 2010, the output value of the processing industry accounted for approximately 18.89% of the GDP, the output value of energy and mining accounted for approximately 13.48% of the GDP, and the construction industry accounted for 3.71%.
The country’s arable land area is 34,000 square kilometers, accounting for about 3% of the country’s land area. In 2010, the country’s land planted area was 2.96 million hectares. Food production can only meet 34% of domestic demand, and the rest depends on imports. In 2010, there were 7.99 million cattle, 2.14 million sheep, and 2.57 million pigs. In 2010, the output value of agriculture, animal husbandry, and the fishery was 2.31 billion US dollars, accounting for 12% of GDP. The main cash crops are cotton, coffee, tobacco, sugar cane, sunflower, and coca. The main agricultural and livestock products are plateau millet, corn, wheat, potato products, and soybeans. Quinoa has begun to become an emerging crop supported by international funds.
The tourism infrastructure is gradually improved. In 2010, it received 671,200 foreign tourists and earned US$314 million in foreign exchange earnings. Peru, Argentina, and the United States are the main countries where most tourists coming from. Brazil, and Western European countries. During the same period, there were 520,000 domestic tourists, and tourism revenue was approximately US$947 million. Since 2010, it has attached great importance to the development of tourism, mainly tourists from Peru, Argentina, the United States, Brazil, and Western European countries.
All previous Bolivian governments have attached great importance to the development of foreign trade, especially encouraging exports to stimulate economic growth. Bolivia actively participates in the regional integration process and has signed economic complementarity agreements with most Latin American countries. In recent years, Bolivia has vigorously explored the natural gas export market and formulated a strategy aimed at becoming the energy supply of the Southern Common Market.
In 2017, the total foreign trade volume of Glass was 17.134 billion U.S. dollars, a year-on-year increase of 9.8%, of which exports were 7.846 billion U.S. dollars and total imports were 9.288 billion U.S. dollars, an increase of 8.8% and 10.2% respectively. The main trading partners are Brazil, China, the United States, Argentina, Colombia, and Venezuela.
cultured – religion
Although the new Constitution of Bolivia abolished the status of Catholicism as the state religion, all religions are equal. But in Bolivia, about 81% of residents believe in Catholicism, and about 10% believe in Protestantism or Evangelicalism. Churches of various sizes can be seen in major towns. On religious holidays, local residents can be seen carrying images of the Virgin Mary or Jesus praying along the street.
Bolivian Indians look and dress very much like Chinese Tibetans. They have dark skin. Both men and women like to wear felt hats, and women like to wear thick multi-layer dresses. For historical reasons, most Indians live in lands with relatively high altitudes, grazing, or working for the main mining industry. The eating habits of most people in Bolivia are mainly meat, mainly beef, pig, chicken, lamb, etc. Common dishes on the table include tomatoes, potatoes, onions, and lettuce.
The lively festival in Bolivia is the Carnival between February and March every year. Among them, the carnival in Oruro is the most spectacular. People in major cities across the country and even neighboring countries wear colorful festive costumes, wear various masks, and sing and dance, attracting many tourists.
After the end of the War of Independence in 1825, Upper Peru gained independence and established the Republic of Bolivia. From the beginning, Bolivian literature was dominated by romanticism. Representative writers are Manuel Jose Cortez (1815～1865) and Ricardo Jose Bustamante (1821～1888). . The latter’s romantic poem “The Overture to Marmore” is rich in rustic flavor.
The theater is represented by Felix Reyes Ortiz (1828 ~ 1884) and Jose Rosendo Gutierrez (1840 ~ 1883). In terms of novels, there are writer Manuel García Caballero (1819～1866) who is good at writing sentimental novels, and Mariano Ricardo Terrazas, a historical novelist whose main background is the colonial period ( 1841～1878), Juana Manuela Goriti (1818～1892), a short story writer dedicated to describing the lives of Indians.
In the second half of the 19th century, the political attempts of the liberal democrats in Bolivia failed completely and were replaced by the brutal dictatorship of Cordillo (ie, feudal warlord). In terms of foreign relations, he suffered a crushing defeat in the territorial dispute with Chile. Writers generally showed strong concern and worries about the future of the nation and began to pay attention to reflecting reality.
The works of Nataniel Aguirre (1843-1888) increasingly touch the reality of society, indicating that Bolivian romanticism is nearing its end. The dissatisfaction and protest among the people are gradually revealed in literary works describing the lives of rural Indians and exposing the urban bourgeoisie. The Indian folklore collected and compiled by Thomas Okonor Dallac (1845～1924) marked the beginning of Bolivian Indian literature; The strong calls for justice for the Indians in the two works of “The Race of Bronze” and “The Race of Bronze” indicates that this literature is nearing its climax.
In the 20th century, naturalism became the main genre in the creation of novels. The writers include: Jaime Mendoza (1874～1939), who wrote many works depicting life in the mining area; Armando Chilveches (1883～ 1926), he was a modernist poet in his early days, and later wrote novels “Sky Blue”, “Aristocratic House”, “Tropical Flower” and “Rojas Campaign”; Alfredo Gillian Pinto (1895～ 1950), his novels “Tears of the Indians”, “Utama”, “The Mines”, etc.
Reveal the oppression and abuse suffered by the Indians and the proletarians in rural and mining areas; Rigovirto Villaroel ·Clauley (1890～), author of the novel “Extremely Important Meaning, also known as Jorge Estefan’s Biography” with the theme of education. In addition, Luis Toro Ramalho (1898~1946) and Carlos Medinaceri (1899~1949) and other distinctive writers.
The former portrays the plateau scenery of Bolivia and the lives of Indians in the two novels “Cutimcu” and “Inca’s Gold”, while the latter subtly intersperses the customs and customs of the provinces of Bolivia in the novel “La Chascani” In the love story of Yawei.
At the same time, modernism gradually occupied a dominant position in poetry. Ricardo Jaimes Freire (1868-1933), France Tamayo (1879-1956), and Gregorio Reynolds (1882-1948) are important modernist poets. Freire’s poem “The Source of the Wild” is hailed as a model of modernist poetry, and he has made a successful attempt in seeking loud syllables.
Tamayo is also a poet who pays attention to rhetoric. His poems “Skopas” and “The Brother of Promi and the Poseidon” has many wonderful verses. Claudio Peñaranda (1884-1924), Jose Eduardo Gela (1893-1943), and Rafael Ballivian (1898～), three poets, began to move from modernism to Explore new genres. After the rise of the avant-garde, there was no strong reaction in Bolivia. The main representatives of the avant-garde poets are Octavio Campello Echasu (1900～), Oscar Seruto (1907～), and others.
In Bolivia, writers who have worked hard to establish a national culture include Fernando Diez de Medina (1908~), Enrique Finote, Guillermo Francovic, and Gustavo Adolfo Otero, and others.
There was a war between Bolivia and Paraguay from 1932 to 1935, and many writers reflected it in their works. The poet Oscar Cerruto authored the novel “Fire Fall”, and Augusto Cespedes (1904～) authored the collection of short stories “Blood of the Mestizos”. Augusto Guzman (1903 ~) described this war in the form of a soldier’s memoir in “Prisoner of War”.
The writers with the theme of contemporary social life include Raul Botello Gonsalves (1917～), he is the author of “The Enchantment of Green Leaves”, “Kocauye”, “Plateau”, “The Priceless-Scene” Time Skit, and The Wasteland. Marcelo Quiroga Santa Cruz’s novel No Man’s Land is considered one of the best literary works in Bolivia.
In the 1950s, a large number of poets emerged, which was called the “epic era of the barbarians”. Representative poets are Julio Della Vega, Oscar Alfaro, Alcira Cardona Torico. The Indian-themed works that were popular in the 1950s are gradually fading and replaced by the trend of pursuing world trends. Representative writers are Jorge Suarez (1932～), Felix Rospigliose Nieto (1930～), Erwin Rojas, Jesus Ursagasti, Edgar Avila Echasu, Edmundo Camargo Ferreira, etc.
festival – Independence Day ( National Day ): August 6
The compulsory military service system is implemented, and all male citizens who have reached the age of 18 must perform military service for one year. Since 1995, the service period of officers has been extended to 35 years. The total strength of the armed forces is 50,000, and the total strength of the police force is 37,000, which is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Interior. The equipment of various services is relatively old and backward. The president is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces is General Edwin de la Fuente.
In 2013, Bolivia’s defense budget was US$426 million.
Bolivia is dominated by road transportation, accounting for more than 85% of transportation. However, the road coverage rate is only 0.068 km/km2, the highest in South America.The most dangerous road in the world-North Yungas Road near La Paz
The highway is divided into three levels. Basic transportation network: The mileage is about 15,919 kilometers, connecting major cities across the country. The National Highway Administration is responsible for maintenance. Provincial transportation network: connecting important domestic production and consumption centers with the basic transportation network. Provincial highway administrations are responsible for maintenance. Municipal transportation network: connecting villages and towns and important commercial areas.
The main trunk roads connect the capital La Paz and important cities such as Oruro, Cochabamba, Sucre, and Santa Cruz, forming the main skeleton of the trunk, radiating and connecting the national highway network. Across the eastern part of Bolivia, with a total length of 1543 kilometers, the transoceanic highway connecting Brazil, Bolivia and Chile have been constructed and delivered.
The highway starts from Puerto Suarez in Santa Cruz province in the east, passes through the provinces of Cochabamba and La Paz, and ends in the province of Oruro in the west. Once the road is connected, it will connect the Atlantic to the Pacific and Brazil to Chile’s transport lines. The Argentine side will also build a road to the border of Bolivia and connect it to the Santa Cruz road so that the country’s cargo can be directly transported to the port of Santos in Brazil or the port of Chile.
As of 2010, the total length of various roads was 80,887 kilometers, of which asphalt roads and gravel roads accounted for 7.9% and 37.3% respectively, and dirt roads accounted for 54.8%; various types of motor vehicles were 449,000. In 2012, Bolivia’s road passenger traffic reached 2.78 million, an increase of 17.2% over 2011. Among them, the number of domestic passengers increased by 11% to 1.48 million, and the number of foreign passengers increased by 18.5% to 1.3 million.
The railway in Bolivia uses a narrow gauge with a width of 1 meter. The national railway system is divided into two parts according to the region, with a total length of 3,679 kilometers, and the two are not yet connected.
Andean railway network: a total length of 2,274 kilometers, passing through the four provinces of La Paz, Oruro, Cochabamba and Potosi, and connected to the railway network of neighboring countries such as Argentina, Chile, and Peru, reaching Peru, Chile, Chile, Important seaports in neighboring countries such as Argentina and Argentina.
Eastern Railway Network: 1,424 kilometers in length, passing through the three provinces of Santa Cruz, Chuquisaca, and Tarija, it can lead to neighboring countries such as Argentina and Buenos Aires.
In 2012, Bolivia’s railway passenger traffic reached 35,700, an increase of 8.6% over 2011. Among them, 23,400 domestic passengers and 12,300 foreign passengers.
As of 2013, Bolivia had 38 public airports and 500 private runways, all managed by the Bolivian Airports and Air Transport Auxiliary Services Administration. The three major cities of Bolivia, La Paz, Cochabamba, and Santa Cruz, have international airports. La Paz Airport is 4,085 meters above sea level, which is one of the highest civilian airports in the world. 
Water transportation in Bolivia consists of river transportation and lake transportation. In Bolivia, river transportation is composed of two major systems: the Amazon River and La Plata River. Lake transportation mainly refers to Lake Titicaca transportation. River transportation is a combined transportation mode. Amazon River transportation includes road transportation and river transportation, and La Plata River transportation includes rail transportation and river transportation. The total mileage of Bolivia’s inland waterway is about 14,000 kilometers.
In 2012, Bolivia water transport completed 5,742 passengers and freight traffic.
In 2016, the illiteracy rate in Bolivia dropped to 2.9%. The number of public schools is 138,000. The state implements compulsory education for children aged 6-12, but the infrastructure is weak and funds are lacking. The famous universities are San Francisco Javier University and San Andres University.
The main newspapers and periodicals are: “Daily”, with a circulation of 50,000; “Responsibility”, with a circulation of 40,000; “Reason”, with a circulation of about 30,000; “Times”, with a circulation of about 25,000; The Newspaper has a circulation of 40,000 copies; the Change News has a circulation of 12,000 copies.
There are 135 TV stations, of which 22 are in the capital La Paz. The National Television Station was founded in 1964 and has broadcast stations in 7 provinces including La Paz.
Law and order
Bolivia has no anti-government armed groups and no terrorist attacks. Local laws do not allow residents to possess guns. Among the large cities, the capital, La Paz, has the best social security situation, and the crime rates in Aalto and Cochabamba are rising rapidly; robberies and thefts occur frequently in the eastern region, with Santa Cruz and other areas being the most serious.
On August 26, 2016, Bolivia’s Minister of the Interior Carlos Romero confirmed that the Deputy Minister of the Interior, Rodolfo Illanes, had been illegally imprisoned by miners who had blocked roads for several days. Later, his abductee “shamefully and brutally killed.” 
People’s livelihood The Bolivian government lists education and culture, health and nutrition, sanitation facilities, urban construction, housing, and employment as issues that need to be solved urgently in its social development policies. In 2010, the government set a minimum wage of 679 bolivianos (US$96). Although the economy has maintained growth in recent years, the gap between the rich and the poor is still wide
. 64% of the people live below the poverty line, and 37% of them are in extreme poverty. In recent years, about 1 million Bolivians have emigrated abroad, most of whom are engaged in the domestic industry. The country is divided into 42 health care areas, with a total of 11,920 medical staff, 2,587 hospitals and clinics; 1.3 beds per 1,000 people, and 1.5 doctors per 1,000 people. In 2010, the population growth rate was 26.31‰, the mortality rate was 7.29‰, and the average life expectancy was 66.34 years; public investment in the medical sector was 651 million bolivianos. In 2010, there were 72 fixed telephones per 100 people.
Epidemic prevention and control
On March 17, 2020, the office of Bolivia’s Interim President Jeanine Añez issued a statement stating that Bolivia will close its borders due to the spread of the new crown pneumonia epidemic. According to reports, the statement stated that starting from the 19th, only Bolivian citizens and residents can enter the country. If travelers want to enter the country, they must abide by the agreement between the Ministry of Health and WHO.
The statement also stated that Bolivia’s international and domestic flights will be suspended from the 20th, but goods are allowed to be shipped into the country. In addition to closing the border, Bolivia’s working days will also be shortened and the market will be open for a limited time. These measures will be implemented until March 31.
Bolivia pursues an anti-imperialist, anti-colonial, anti-hegemony, independent, peaceful, and non-aligned foreign policy, safeguard national independence and sovereignty, and upholds the principles of equality of all countries, self-determination of people peaceful settlement of international disputes. Focus on poverty eradication, climate change, and regional integration, focus on regional diplomacy, pragmatic diplomacy, and diversified diplomacy, advocate diplomacy to serve economic construction, and strive to enhance Bolivia’s international status. Successive Bolivian governments have insisted on requesting Chile to restore access to the Pacific Ocean.
The Bolivian Non-Aligned Movement, the World Trade Organization, the Organization of American States, the Community of Latin American and the Caribbean States, the Union of South American States, the Andean Community, the Rio Group, the La Plata River Basin Organization, the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization and other member countries and the South Common Market Contact country.
He has served as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council since January 2017, and his term of office is until the end of 2018. Maintain diplomatic relations with 86 countries. Bolivia has 32 embassies abroad, 104 consulates, and more honorary consuls. Twenty-six countries and international organizations have permanent ambassadors or representatives in Bolivia, and 41 foreign consulates in mainland cities.
Relations with the United States
Diplomatic relations were established on June 8, 1825. Traditionally, Bolivia has close relations with the United States, and relations with the United States are the focus of Bolivia’s diplomacy.
After President Morales took office, he opposed US interference in internal affairs, and the dispute between Bolivia and the United States increased. In September 2008, Bolivia expelled the US ambassador for interference in internal affairs. Immediately, the United States announced the cancellation of the “Andean National Trade Promotion and Anti-Drug Act” (ATPDEA) tariff preferences for Bolivia and removed Bolivia from the list of partners with the United States.
After President Obama came to power, the two countries signed a framework agreement on bilateral relations. Bilateral relations were eased for a while, but the Andean trade preferences and preferential tariff treatments granted to countries in the Andean region by the United States still excluded Bosnia and Herzegovina. On November 7, 2011, the two sides signed a bilateral framework agreement based on the principle of mutual respect for sovereignty and agreed to re-appoint ambassadors. In 2013, relations between the two countries deteriorated again due to the expulsion of officials from the US International Development Program and the ” Prism Gate ” incident.
Relations with Latin American countries
Attach importance to the traditionally friendly relations with Latin American countries, especially the Andean Community and neighboring countries such as Brazil and Argentina, with frequent high-level exchanges. Bolivia has signed economic complementarity and investment protection agreements with most Latin American countries actively participates in the process of regional integration and seeks to become a channel through the two oceans and a place for energy supply in the Southern Common Market
. In November 1997, Bolivia signed an agreement on complementarity and integration with Chile and Argentina. After President Morales took office, Bolivia formed the “anti-neoliberal camp” with Cuba and Venezuela and the “Axis of Justice” in Latin America. Bolivar joined the “America Bolivarian Choice” advocated by Venezuela (renamed in June 2009). American Bolivarian Alliance “, ALBA). Actively participate in regional integration, and strive to strengthen mutual trust and cooperation with neighboring countries. Since July 2010, he has served as the rotating presidency of the Andes Community until July 2011.
Relations with Chile
From 1879 to 1883, Chile defeated the coalition forces of Bolivia and Peru in the Pacific War, cutting off a large area of the coast of Bolivia, and Bolivia has since become a landlocked country. Bolivia repeatedly asked the Chilean government to obtain access to the Pacific Ocean without success. In 1978, the two sides broke down in negotiations on the issue of access to the sea and broke off diplomatic relations. So far, only consular relations have been maintained.
Since Morales took office in January 2006, the relationship between Bolivia and Chile has tended to ease. In December 2007, the Brazilian, Chilean President to visit Singapore, the three countries jointly announced the completion of the west of Chile in 2009 Iquique port, east Brazil Santos Port of two foreign land corridors. In June 2008, the Chilean side stated that it was ready to use the port of Iquique as a port for free passage in Bolivia. In December 2010, the presidents of the two countries stated that they would establish a high-level committee to discuss issues such as the requirements for the port to the sea and continue to promote the 13-point agenda for the development of bilateral relations.
In January 2011, the two countries announced the establishment of a bilateral high-level committee. In March, the first high-level committee was held in La Paz. Since then, due to Chi’s strong insistence that the seaport issue should not be negotiated, the process of the 13-point issue came to a halt. Bolivia announced that it planned to submit the seaport issue to the International Court of Justice for judgment in The Hague. The Chilean side strongly opposed it and the relationship between the two countries fell back into a trough. In September, Bolivia made a formal proposal to Chile to place Arica Port under Bolivian jurisdiction.
In April 2013, Bolivia sued Chile to the International Court of Justice, demanding that Chile and Bolivia start negotiations in good faith and reach a substantive agreement as soon as possible so that Bolivia has permanent access to the Pacific Ocean. In July, the Chilean side raised an objection on whether the Hague International Court of Justice has the right to hear the case.
Relations with European countries
Bolivia values the development of relations with EU countries. President Morales visited Europe many times. Relevant EU countries have successively made debt relief commitments to Bolivia.
In July 2013, President Morales went to Russia to participate in the OPEC summit on his way back. Due to the ” Prism Gate ” incident, the special plane’s transit through Europe was blocked, which seriously affected the relationship between the two parties. The Bolivian government recalled its ambassadors to relevant countries, pushed Latin American organizations to pass condemning resolutions, and convened the first “Anti-imperialist and Anti-colonial Summit” to jointly condemn the actions of the United States and Europe. After France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, and other relevant countries apologized to Bolivia for this, Mo expressed acceptance of the apology and hoped to continue to develop mutually beneficial and friendly relations with European countries.
Relations with Japan
In 1956, the two countries signed an immigration agreement. Japan is one of the main providers of loans and assistance to Bolivia. President Sanchez officially visited Japan in 1996. In 2000, Japan agreed to forgive Bolivia’s debts totaling about US$200 million. In April 2005, President Mesa visited Japan. In March 2007, President Morales paid an official visit to Japan. The Emperor of Japan and the Prime Minister met separately.
In December 2010, President Morales visited Japan, attended the luncheon of Emperor Akihito, and held talks with Prime Minister Naoto Kan. The Japanese side agreed to invest 250 million U.S. dollars to build a thermal power plant in Bolivia and expressed willingness to strengthen cooperation with Bolivia in the field of lithium mine development.
In February 2011, Japan announced to provide Bolivia with $35 billion in machinery and equipment to help Bolivia withstand floods. In March, the Bolivian government expressed condolences on Japan’s severe earthquake disaster.
Relations with Israel
On January 14, 2009, Bolivian President Morales announced the suspension of diplomatic relations with Israel in protest against Israel’s offensive on the Gaza Strip. Morales severely accused Israel’s military actions in Gaza as ” genocide “, which seriously threatened world peace and violated the basic norms of international law
Relations with China
On July 9, 1985, the People’s Republic of China and the Republic of Bolivia established diplomatic relations. In September of the same year, China set up an embassy in Bolivia; in August of the following year, Bolivia opened an embassy in China. In May 1992, China established a consulate general in Santa Cruz, Bolivia (downgraded to a consulate in March 2002 and restored to a consulate general in December 2013).
On December 19, 2013, President Xi Jinping held talks with Bolivian President Morales at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. The two heads of state reached a consensus on bilateral cooperation: First, maintain high-level exchanges, strengthen exchanges between the government, legislatures, and political parties, exchange experience in governance, and continue to support each other on major issues involving each other’s core interests.
Second, promote the balanced growth of bilateral trade, coordinate and advance cooperation in the fields of energy, minerals, agriculture, infrastructure construction, high technology, finance, and aerospace, and do a good job in key projects. Bolivia welcomes investment from Chinese companies and is willing to create a good environment for this. Third, strengthen exchanges in the fields of culture, education, and tourism, enhance mutual understanding and friendship, and facilitate personnel exchanges between the two sides.
Fourth, intensify cooperation in multilateral mechanisms such as the United Nations and the “Group of 77 + China”, strengthen cooperation on issues such as sustainable development, climate change, and food security, and better safeguard the interests of developing countries. Work together to promote the early establishment of a China-Latin America Cooperation Forum and advance overall China-Latin America cooperation.
In November 2008, the tenth meeting of the China-Glassman Economic and Trade Mixed Committee was successfully held in Beijing.
At 00:42 on December 21, 2013, China successfully launched the Bolivian communications satellite with the Long March 3B carrier rocket at the Xichang Satellite Launch Center, and the satellite successfully entered the scheduled orbit. The Bolivian Communication Satellite is the first satellite owned by the country.
From January to September 2018, the bilateral trade volume between China and Bolivia was US$1.813 billion, of which China’s exports were US$1.468 billion and imports were US$345 million, which was basically the same year-on-year. I have become the world’s second-largest trading partner, the largest source of imports, and the seventh-largest export destination of Bolivia. I mainly export automobiles, motorcycles, tires, high-tech products, etc., and mainly import mineral sand, leather, logs, and sawn timber
Relations with other countries
On February 20-23, 2013, President Morales went to Malabo, the capital of Equatorial Guinea, to attend the third summit of the South American-African Forum and met with Equatorial Guinea President Obiang and other African heads of state. In August, President Morales congratulated the newly-elected Iranian President Hassan Rouhani and positively commented on the development of relations between Bolivia and Iran since the establishment of diplomatic relations in 2007.
In May 2014, President Morales visited Algeria. This was the first visit to Algeria by a head of state since the founding of the country in 1825. In November 2013, Bolivia was elected as the chairman of the Group of 77 in 2014, and the 50th-anniversary summit of the Group of 77 was held in Bolivia in June 2014
Tiwanaku, the ancient city of the Inca Empire, Illimani Snow Mountain, colonial ruins, the Mission District of Jesus, and the Amazon River Basin area.
Skull Blessing Day
November 8 is Bolivia’s skull blessing day “(the Day of Skulls), on this day, local residents will have to skulls of their loved ones were taken to the church to pray, hope to bring good luck. The inhabitants of some parts of Bolivia still maintain a mysterious tradition of putting the skulls of their dead relatives in their homes as amulets.
Uyuni Salt Lake
The Uyuni Salt Lake in Bolivia is the largest salt marsh in the world. Driving on the salt marsh, we seem to disappear into a state of nothingness. Huge area
The reflection of sunlight on the salt marsh allows the sky to blend with itself perfectly. In the picture, the cone-shaped salt piles from another planet are piled up by workers, waiting to be collected and processed. All this makes people deepen such an impression, this is indeed a unique place. The Uyuni salt marsh contains about 10 billion tons of salt, and only about 25,000 tons are mined every year.
The Uyuni Salt Lake was formed after a huge lake dried up about 40,000 years ago. Only in the rainy season, the surface of the crusty salt lake will form a smooth mirror. And this Uyuni salt marsh not only has beautiful scenery, but also grows many rare animals and plants, enchanting thousand-year-old cacti, rare hummingbirds, and pink flamingos. Watch the leisurely animals strolling on it and become The most agile scenery in the sky mirror.
The right time and place and people can see the beauty of the “Mirror of the Sky”. Without the right time and place, people and people cannot be seen. In addition to choosing the right time, you can only see the mirror-like view of the salt lake when you visit in the rainy season from February to March, and you need to encounter clear weather and no strong wind to reflect the calm and large mirror
The purest sky. During the daytime, the salt lake sparkling like diamonds can be seen everywhere in the salt lake, and the salt lake is not calm at night. Under the sky of this plateau, the temperature drops to the freezing point, but the stars can be seen shining brightly and more romantic.
- English name – Plurinational State of Bolivia
- Short name – Bolivia
- Continent – South America
- Capital – La Paz , Sucre
- main city – Santa Cruz , Cochabamba , Oruro , Potosí, etc.
- National Day – August 6, 1825
- National anthem – “Bolivians, Favorable Destiny”
- country – codeBOL
- official language – 36 Indian national languages including Spanish and Quechua
- Currency – Boliviano
- Time zone – UTC-4
- political system – Presidential republicNational
- leader – President
- Population – 11.216 million (2018)
- Population density – 10.1 persons/km2 (2016)
- Main ethnic group – Indians , Indo-European mixed races white people
- Main religion – Catholic
- National Land area – 1.098 million square kilometers
- Water area – rate1.3%
- GDP total – 40.288 billion USD (2018, international exchange rate)
- GDP per capital – 3549 USD (2018, international exchange rate)
- International telephone area – code+591
- International domain name – abbreviation BOL
- Road traffic Drive – right
- Major universities – University of San Andres