Dubai is one of the most populous cities among the seven emirates of the United Arab Emirates The city is located in the middle of the center East. It covers nearly about 4114 square kilometers. And it covers 5.8% of the entire area of the UAE, Dubai is the second-largest area in the middle east countries. The population is approximately 3,392,408 ( June 2020 ), accounting for approximately 41.9% of the UAE’s population, making it the most populous city. In 2016, the GDP of the Emirate of Dubai was 376.8 billion dirhams (approximately US$102.9 billion).
The economic and financial center in the middle east is Dubai. It is also a major transportation hub for passengers and goods in the Middle East. Oil revenue promoted Dubai’s early development, but due to limited reserves and low production levels, after 2010, the oil industry only accounted for less than 5% of Dubai’s GDP. After oil, Dubai’s economy mainly relies on tourism, aviation, real estate, and financial services.
Dubai has also attracted the attention of the world through large-scale construction projects and sporting events. Dubai has the world’s tallest man-made building, the Burj Khalifa, and the world’s largest man-made island project, Palm Island. According to GaWC ranking in 2018 Dubai was ranked ninth in the world’s first-tier cities,
In the third century BC, there were human activities in Dubai. Archaeologists discovered the ruins and cultural relics of human settlements in the fifth century AD in the Jumeirah area of Dubai. In 1799, Dubai began to have records of villages. On January 8, 1820, the chief of Dubai signed a basic contract (sea contract) with the United Kingdom.
In 1833, the Nahyān family, the chief of Abu Dhabi, together with the 800-member Bani Yas tribe led by the Maktoum family, left Abu Dhabi and moved to a fishing industry at the time. Dubai, a small fishing village dominated by the export trade of pearls, established the Dubai Emirate.
In 1835, along with the rest of the Trusil emirate, Dubai signed a maritime armistice agreement with the United Kingdom and signed a “permanent armistice agreement” 20 years later.
In 1852, Maktoum became the chief, creating the family’s rule in Dubai. Since then, Dubai, the new independent emirate, has officially separated from the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. In 1853, Dubai, like other emirates, also became a British protectorate.
In March 1892, the Emirate of Trusil was established. Ruling Britain used this land as an important transit point to the British East India Company. In the 20th century, due to the free trade policy promoted by the chiefs of the past generations, Dubai became a gathering place for merchants in the surrounding areas and gradually formed a transit trading port.
On the other hand, since the Japanese Mikimoto Kokichi successfully developed cultured pearls in the early 20th century, the pearl gathering industry, another pillar industry in Dubai, was hit hard. Coupled with the downturn of the world economy at that time, Dubai’s society became more unstable.
In 1938, the chiefs occupied the Bur Dubai area on the south bank of Klick, and the anti-chiefs occupied the Dira area on the north bank, and the two sides became a state of imminent battle. In order to alleviate the crisis, the chief established a parliament with the help of local capable people and carried out administrative reforms, but soon the parliament opposed the chief and was disbanded.
In 1954, Britain established a political agency (Political Agency) in Dubai and became a protector. The flexible and loose policies of Dubai was attracted more amount of foreigners. Due to the participation of these foreign “immigrants”, Dubai’s internationalization process has been accelerated and Dubai has quickly become a large international trade. Port city.
In 1959, the then chief Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum hoped to build Dubai into a modern city. He borrowed funds from Kuwait as the basis for the modernization of the city and used the money to implement the Dubai Creek dredging project, which successfully consolidated As the foundation of Dubai as a transit trading port, has laid a good foundation stone for future development.
In 1966, following the discovery of an oil field in Abu Dhabi 1958, a submarine oil field was also discovered in Dubai, which further advanced the development. After the devaluation of the Arab rupee, Dubai joined the newly independent Qatar to establish a new currency measurement-Qatar/Dubai rial.
In 1969, the export of the first barrel of crude oil, promoting the faster development of Dubai’s economy and urban infrastructure.
In 1971, with the withdrawal of the British protectors from the Persian Gulf, the geographical boundaries of Dubai were re-divided. On December 2 of the same year, Dubai, Abu Dhabi, and five other emirates jointly established the United Arab Emirates. Headed by the Vice President and Prime Minister, Chief Rashid, an organization was formed to promote the separation of Dubai from an oil-dependent economy and a diversified economy.
In 1973, Dubai and other emirates adopted a single currency: the dirham.
In 1985, the Jebelari Free Trade Zone (JAFZ) and a large harbor were established, as well as the national airline Emirates Airlines. With the entry of foreign capital and foreign enterprises, Dubai has become a gathering place of “people” and “things” and has developed rapidly.
In the 21st century, after a process of modernization, Dubai has become the largest center of trade and commerce in the Middle East. In just 20 years from 1970, not only the appearance of the city has undergone major changes, but the economic dependence on oil has also fallen to less than half, and the gross national product has increased by 30 times.
Since 2003, it has developed rapidly. In the second half of 2004, high oil prices have accelerated the development of Dubai. In 2005, the economic growth rate reached 16%, and the actual gross national product in 2007 was 198 billion dirhams. The population exceeds 2.4 million.
The period from 2006 to October 2008 was a crazy period for Dubai real estate, with real estate rising more than ten percent every few months. The developer has already built the first phase of the house because the government has not yet opened the highway there, and later plans have stalled.
After 2008, due to the global economic downturn caused by the outbreak of the sub-credit crisis in the United States, Dubai also stopped its rapid growth. The withdrawal of foreign companies and the deterioration of the capital turnover of local companies, followed by a number of project suspensions and project interruptions, these problems also caused the unemployment of foreign workers and the decrease of tourists.
In November 2009, the Dubai government issued a request to postpone the payment of the government-based real estate development company Nakheel and its subsidiary Dubai World’s $59 billion debt to financial institutions in Europe and the United States, as well as Dubai World’s and the Dubai government’s own non-payment of debts. Repayment, the failure to collect the debts of European and American banks, and the devaluation of the euro have caused what is known as the “Dubai Shock”. Share prices in the Dubai financial market have also fallen sharply.
In January 2010, the stock price fell to 38.09 billion U.S. dollars. It is about 1% of the total price of the Tokyo Stock Exchange and the London Stock Exchange. However, overseas tourists increased by 9.2% compared with the previous year, reaching a record of 8,294,132 people, and tourists from emerging countries, led by China, have been increasing.
As the seat of government of the emirate, Dubai is the city of Dubai. Dubai is divided into 9 locations: 1~4 districts, 5 and 6 are urban areas, 7~9 are suburbs, and 8 in Jebel Ali. Each location is divided by the size of the community and the boundary of the main highway. There are 132 communities.
Geographical environment (Location context)
Dubai is basically located in the middle of the Middle East, in a flat desert facing the Persian Gulf. The latitude and longitude are 25°15′47″ north latitude; 55°17′50″ east longitude. With an area of 4114 square kilometers, it ranks second among the 7 emirates in the United Arab Emirates. To the north is the Emirate of Sharjah, to the south is the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, and to the east is adjacent to the Sultanate of Oman.
The city of Dubai is divided into two by the Dubai Creek (Dubai Creek), which is about 14 kilometers long and flows east-west. The north side is called Deira and the south side is called Bur Dubai. Dubai is a city that was established by using this creek as a port. These two areas have formed old streets as urban areas since the establishment of Dubai.
The west and south of Dubai City Street are desert areas, and the west end is a mountainous area, but oasis-like Hada also exists individually.
Dubai has a subtropical climate, divided into winter and summer. The highest temperature in summer can sometimes reach 50°C. Although it does not rain at all, 100% humidity is often observed. Very high temperatures and humidity are uncomfortable summers. On the contrary, the winter from November to March can make people feel cold again. In addition, sandstorms have also occurred in winter. However, the average temperature in winter is around 20°C, which is very comfortable and is also a peak season for sightseeing.
Sandstorms are a common natural disaster in Dubai. Sandstorms often last for several days and nights
Natural resources (Water resources)
The UAE’s annual per capita water resources are less than 900 cubic meters, making it one of the most water-poor countries in the world. In sharp contrast, due to the hot and humid climate and the high standard of living, the UAE’s national per capita daily water consumption exceeds 7 cubic meters, second only to the United States and Canada, ranking third in the world.
Dubai’s annual water consumption has exceeded its own renewable natural water resources by 26 times. In 2011, the highest water load in the emirate of Dubai will exceed 1.55 million cubic meters per day, and water shortage has become a bottleneck restricting the sustainable development of its national economy.
Dubai’s freshwater supply mainly relies on groundwater sources and desalination. Three-quarters of agricultural irrigation water and more than one-third of residents’ daily water use come from groundwater sources. Due to the hot climate in Dubai with little rain, the average annual precipitation is only 42 mm, and the amount of evaporation is large, the groundwater resources cannot be effectively replenished for a long time, and the water level of the aquifer drops sharply.
Therefore, Dubai mainly relies on seawater desalination and wastewater recycling treatment as the main sources of residential water and industrial production water to gradually restore the water quality and storage capacity of the underground aquifers in the area.
In 1966, Dubai discovered oil at a distance of 120 kilometers from the coastline and obtained mining rights. Although the Middle East is the region with the largest oil reserves and the most oil production and export in the world, Dubai has very few oil reserves. The UAE’s total oil reserves are 98 billion barrels, of which the capital Abu Dhabi accounts for 92 billion barrels, and Dubai only accounts for 4 billion barrels.
Dubai is speeding up the extraction and export of oil, and it is the first to transform and upgrade the single economic model of the Middle East with the money from selling oil. With the export of the first barrel of crude oil in 1969, Dubai’s economy began to enter the fast lane.
In 2013, Dubai’s oil production has fallen sharply, from a peak annual output of 410,000 barrels to less than 70,000 barrels. Oil only provides 6% of the gross national product. At the same time, the non-oil industry has accounted for more than 95% of Dubai’s gross national product, and Dubai has got rid of the development path of Middle Eastern countries generally dependent on oil.
In 1980, the population of Dubai was only 280,000. In the following 15 years, it has expanded 2.5 times, reaching 700,000 in 1995 and 1.2 million in early 2007. On the other hand, about half of the population is cheap labor from India and Bangladesh in order to improve the infrastructure. When they obtain visas, sponsors and employers are also obliged to arrange residence for them.
At the beginning of 2013, 83% of residents were foreigners. Among them, the proportion of Indians accounted for 75% of the total population. It is called “the most beautiful Indian city in the world”, and it is mainly occupied by laborers from South Asia, mainly Indians. Among them, the construction industry is the mainstay, and Indians can be seen in most occupations in society. In addition, there are many Filipinos, mainly engaged in the service industry, babysitting, nurses, and other industries. The rest are mostly Europeans and Americans, mostly Asians.
In January 2016, the population was 2,440,350. Together with the neighboring Sharjah emirate (about 800,000 people), it can become a metropolitan area with a population of 3 million.
Between 2015 and 2016, Dubai’s UHNWI population grew by 12%, surpassing New York, London, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Tokyo. It is estimated that by 2026, the number of ultra-high net worth (UHNWI) in Dubai will increase by 60% compared to 2016.
In 2018, the population of Dubai was approximately 5 million, of which Dubai’s local population was 1 million and 80% were foreigners. In June 2020, the total population of Dubai was approximately 3,392,408.
Dubai, like other member states of the United Arab Emirates, sampled a hereditary monarchy. The current (June 2018) chief is Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, who is also the Vice President and Prime Minister of the UAE. Sheikh Rashid bin Said al Maktoum, known as the prince who made Dubai’s prosperity, died in October 1990.
Dubai does not hold parliamentary elections and does not recognize free party formation. Among the 40 seats in the UAE Congress-Federal National Council, Dubai has 8 seats.
In 1966, Dubai discovered oil for the first time and exported its first barrel of crude oil in 1969. In 1975, the oil economy accounted for 54% of the GDP, and the accumulation of primitive capital was completed through “black gold”
Since the original oil reserves are not very large, Dubai must break away from the type of economy that relies solely on oil. Since 1980, it has vigorously promoted the economic policy of diversified industrial types, in order to build Dubai into a financial center and a tourist city in the Middle East.
Strengthen the infrastructure construction in terms of hardware and software. The Jebel Ali Free Zone newly built during this process is a special economic zone that fully guarantees the free investment of foreign capital and the free employment of foreign workers. This feature has greatly promoted the capital in and out of foreign companies.
As a result of this, large companies from Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom have all entered Dubai. Super high-rise buildings, high-end hotels, villas, etc. have been built around Jumeirah Beach, a major resort area in the city, and a lot of shopping has been built. Centers and theme parks,
In the 21st century, Dubai has not suffered economic decline due to reduced oil production. It is precisely due to the infrastructure completed during the peak period of the oil dollar economy that has promoted diversified economic development. Since 2000, the non-oil economy has accounted for 90% of Dubai’s gross national product.
In 2008, when the financial crisis broke out, oil fell from US$147 per barrel to a minimum of more than US$30. Dubai’s real estate and tourism industries were severely impacted, and hundreds of billions of dollars of projects including the Burj Khalifa were temporarily suspended.
However, because 95% of Dubai’s GDP comes from non-oil industries, and after Abu Dhabi provided US$10 billion in aid to alleviate the urgent need, relying on the growth of industries such as trade, tourism, and aviation, Dubai has gradually recovered. In 2014, Dubai’s economic growth recovered to 6.1%, once again becoming one of the fastest-growing places in the world.
In 2014, Dubai’s GDP was 338 billion dirhams, and in 2015, its GDP was about 100 billion U.S. dollars, ranking second only to Abu Dhabi in the UAE. The petroleum industry accounts for only 1% of the gross national product.
In 2016, the GDP of the Emirate of Dubai reached 376.8 billion dirhams (approximately US$102.9 billion), a year-on-year increase of 2.9%. From the perspective of the estimated openness of foreign trade to GDP, Dubai is 321%, ranking third in the world after Hong Kong and Luxembourg.
In July 2017, the petroleum industry accounted for less than 1% of Dubai’s GDP, foreign trade accounted for 28% of Dubai’s GDP, transportation and storage accounted for 12%, and financial services accounted for 11%.
The sense of crisis urged Dubai to complete the transformation from fishery to oil economy, and then to trade and tourism economy in less than 60 years, and to recover from the financial crisis and move towards the vision of a cultural and knowledge city.
Dubai’s oil reserves in the UAE rank fifth among the Middle East countries, lower than Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait. From the perspective of the UAE, Dubai’s oil reserves are also the lowest among the seven emirates, accounting for only 5% of the UAE. After more than 40 years of exploitation, Dubai’s oil reserves have continued to rapidly deplete. Dubai’s daily output of crude oil is less than 100,000 barrels, which is less than 1/20 of the daily output of Abu Dhabi, the largest emirate of the UAE.
In July 2017, the oil industry accounted for less than 1% of Dubai’s GDP.
In Dubai, trade is the largest economic pillar, followed by logistics, finance, and tourism. The Jebel Ali Free Trade Zone (JAFZA) is representative of Dubai’s trade characteristics. Among the more than 10 free trade zones spread across the UAE, it is the most important and the largest free trade zone in the Middle East.
In Dubai, the free trade zone is very different from the Middle East world outside. According to the laws of the Middle East, foreigners must follow the guarantor system to establish a company, that is, the guarantor must be guaranteed by the local, and the guarantor must hold at least 51% or even 100% of the shares. This special system restriction has made it easy for many large companies. Don’t dare to set foot.
The free trade zone solves these problems. According to the relevant regulations of the Dubai government, companies in the free trade zone can enjoy 100% foreign ownership, 50 years of income tax exemption, 15 years of tax exemption after expiration, no personal income tax, complete import tax exemption, 100% repatriation of capital and profits, and Adequate and cheap energy and other policies. The free trade zone has become the largest insurer of the enterprise.
JAFZA is the largest free trade zone in the Middle East. The contribution to Dubai’s gross national product reached 20.6%, accounting for 50% of Dubai’s total exports, accounting for 20% of Dubai’s total foreign direct investment absorption, and creating approximately 160,000 jobs for the UAE. Many Chinese-funded companies have come here to pan for gold, and the number of them has reached 238. Among them, the first major industry is the petroleum and chemical industry,
Since 2000, the Dubai government has begun large-scale construction and planning, which not only increased the popularity of Dubai’s real estate but also made Dubai one of the fastest-growing cities in the world. In many areas, looking up, in addition to the Dubai sky, at least one crane is indispensable; industry experts conservatively estimate that 15-25% of the world’s cranes are in Dubai. The speed of construction in Dubai and the United Arab Emirates is usually much faster than in Western countries. This is because workers from the Indian subcontinent can accept lower salaries than other countries.
In 2002, the UAE revised its laws to allow non-UAE nationals to own real estate in Dubai. Permanent ownership of the real estate in some urban areas and 99-year long-term leases in some urban areas have been approved for sale to foreigners.
A large number of immigrants from various countries have moved to Dubai, bringing huge amounts of capital and stimulating local economic development. The immigrants from Iran alone have invested more than US$200 billion in the local area. The first real estate property owned by a non-UAE national is a villa community called Emirates Hills, composed of green spaces, fountains, and lakes and designed by Emaar Properties.
In 2016, Dubai Chief Sheikh Mohammed said when visiting Dubai’s 15th Global Cityscape Exhibition that real estate is the engine of the economy, the pillar of development, and the absorber of foreign investment.
Dubai, as well as the Deira crossing the Dubai Creek, has become an important trading port for Western manufacturers. The financial centers of many cities are located in the port area, which became important trading centers in the 1970s and 1980s. The city of Dubai allowed free trade in gold until the 1990s. Due to restrictions on the import of gold from India, Dubai became a place for smuggling gold to India.
Jebel Ali Port has an annual container throughput of about 10 million tons. Even if the tariff is low, coupled with the port usage fee that is not cheap, it is also a source of revenue for Dubai’s finances.
In terms of shipping, more than 125 major world routes include Dubai’s Rashid Port and Jebel Ali Port. Among the largest artificial ports in the world, The Jebel Ali Port is in the front with 65 berths and a span of around 15 kilometers. The port is surrounded by a tax-free zone, where foreign-invested enterprises can have 100% ownership and are exempt from corporate tax and personal tax.
Mohammed mentioned in his book that in the 1970s, a businessman asked him to prevent his father Rashid from building Jebel Ali Port because the construction cost brought a huge financial burden. But the old chief told him that this is a precaution, because future resources may not be able to complete the project.
After the completion of Jebel Ali Port, it became one of the ten busiest cargo ports in the world. With the operating experience of Jebel Ali Port, Dubai was able to operate more than 60 ports worldwide.
In 1980, after Dubai gained the status of a major circulation base in the Middle East, the world’s major financial institutions also began to enter Dubai, and Dubai became a veritable Middle East financial center.
Relying on the Dubai International Financial Center (DIFC), commercial and financial institutions are able to serve the growing financial needs of the region and provide support for the increasingly complex operations of companies in and outside the region. As the company expands, more and more complex operations have emerged. Financing needs.
DIFC is a domestic financial center connecting the East and the West. It has a good strategic location and provides a safe and efficient platform for commercial and financial institutions to enter and exit the emerging markets in the region.
Dubai’s trade and industry have experienced rapid growth. Today, At the same time, Dubai is also committed to vigorously strengthening the construction of its industrial base to further diversify its economy. To this end, Dubai has established some heavy industrial projects in the Jebrali Free Zone, and the active private economy has also established some small and medium-sized manufacturing plants and has achieved self-sufficiency in certain products, and some products have even exceeded the local market. Demand and export to overseas markets.
In 2002, Dubai’s tourism revenue accounted for 18% of its gross national product (18.8 billion US dollars), surpassing its oil industry revenue for the first time.
Since 2003, Dubai’s tourism industry has solved 25% of Dubai’s employment rate, which has also become one of the main sources of income. It is also the focus of the work of the Chief of Dubai. The number of tourist accommodations in Dubai has grown from nearly 2 million in 1996 to more than 6 million in 2005. During the same period, the number of transit passengers at Dubai Airport also increased from 8 million to nearly 25 million.
When 2012, It has developed into a world-class tourist and economic city. Dubai ranks 8th in the world with the most foreign tourists, and it is also the only country in the Middle East.
Under the policy of taking tourism as the axis of development, the world’s most advanced high-rise hotel Dubai Burj Al Arab was built on the artificial island of Jumeirah Beach, as well as other luxury resort hotels, as well as the largest shopping center in the Middle East.
Also built a unique artificial satellite can be observed artificial islands – Palm Island, World Island, Jumeirah Islands (Jumeirah Islands), Waterfront Gulf (Dubai Waterfront), Jumeirah Lake Towers (Jumeirah Lake Towers), Dubai Maritime City (Dubai Maritime City), Dubai Media City (Dubai Media City), Dubai Marina (Dubai Marina), an artificial ski slope in the desert – ski Dubai, and so on and concentrate on the development of various tourism resources.
As the birthplace of Dubai, the old markets on both sides of the Dubai Creek have become a gathering place for Indian and Pakistani businessmen, and at the same time, they have also become a gathering place for most tourists.
Dubai Deira area in the east of the north shore, there is Dubai Spice Market (Spice Souk) the Dubai gold market (Gold Souk), there are areas in the south-western coast of the Barr Dubai Dubai textile market (Textile Souk), and A Fadi historic area (Al Fahidi Historical District). There are many wooden dhows parked by the Dubai Creek, and the wooden ferry Abra, which connects the two sides of the strait, has frequent visits and has become a tourist attraction.
In addition, as the transportation hub of Zhongtong, Dubai has also enriched its infrastructure as much as possible. Emirates can fly to all continents of the world and also supports transfers from major airlines in the world. Therefore, tourists not only come from countries in the Middle East, but also from all over the world. Based on a hugely ambitious project, in 2010, the world’s tallest building Burj Khalifa was completed (Edited in June 2018).
In addition, Dubai also hosted the Dubai Horse Racing World Cup under the international jockey club system at Medan Racecourse (Nader Sabah Racecourse from 1996 to 2009). Others also actively hold world competitions for motorcycle sports and water sports.
As of October 2007, a total of 46 large shopping malls have been built in Dubai. On October 31, 2008, Dubai Mall, the world’s largest shopping mall, officially opened. The world’s largest theme park-Dubailand is under construction from 2015 to 2018.
Dubai has the world’s largest artificial port, Jebel Ali, and Dubai International Airport, which operates as an international aviation hub 24 hours a day. Dubai is constantly developing as a hub and transit trade port for the circulation of people and materials in the Middle East.
Dubai International Airport, which opened in 1960, is the base of Emirates Airlines. There are regular flights to all continents as well as flights from airlines from other countries in the world. In 2008, a huge investment was made to complete the third terminal. In addition, Al Maktoum International Airport (Dubai World Central International Airport) was built in the southwest.
Abra: Also known as a water bus, it is a local traditional means of transportation that shuttles between Dubai Creek (Dubai Creek). This wooden ferry is only allowed to carry 20 passengers at a time, and the fare is 2 dirhams (about 3.6 RMB) per person, and it takes about 3-4 minutes to reach the opposite shore. Bur Dubai’s marina is near the textile market area where the Dubai Museum is located, and Deira’s marina is near Nasa Square.
Dubai Metro: In 2005, the construction of the urban railway connecting Dubai International Airport and Jebel Ali Port was started, and the construction was undertaken by a total of 5 construction companies including 4 Japanese companies. Among the four planned routes, the “red route” was opened on September 9, 2009, and the “green route” was opened on September 9, 2011.
Palm Jumeirah Artificial Island Monorail: The monorail to Palm Island is funded by Marubeni Corporation of Japan and completed in 2009.
Dubai Tram: Opened in 2014 and operates in the Marina area of Dubai. Interchange is possible with Dubai Metro and Palm Jumeirah Monorail. From the city center, you can transfer to Palm Jumeirah. The tram is a Citadis model produced by Alstom in France. Except for the garage, the entire section uses surface collection methods, eliminating overhead lines. Taking into account the high temperature and windy and sandy environment of each parking spot, each parking spot adopts air-conditioning and closed platforms, so that passengers waiting for the train can use the tram comfortably.
Dubai Trali Tram : A tram line opened in 2015. A loop line centered on the city center and the development area. The route is divided into 3 stages of construction. The vehicle is a traditional double-layer type, using regenerative brake batteries and fuel cells as energy.
Dubai Light Rail:
Since 2006, the Dubai government has spent billions of dollars to build the city’s light rail. The project is divided into three phases. The first phase was completed and opened in 2009, and the third phase has been completed. Light rail transit cards are divided into “ordinary cards”, “silver cards” and “gold cards”, and the discounts they enjoy when used are also different (light railcards can also be used when taking a bus).
The starting price of the light rail is 1.8 dirhams (3.2RMB), and the number of stops is up to 5-6 dirhams, and it can take more than 15 stops. Since the opening of the light rail, traffic congestion during peak hours in Dubai has been eased
Most buses in Dubai are Mercedes-Benz, with 51 seats and 10 stations, all with air-conditioning. The fare of ordinary routes in the city is 1.5 dirhams (approximately 2.7 RMB). The bus to the suburbs ranges from 2-7 dirhams according to the distance.
Get on the bus from the front door, men get off at the back door, and women and children get off from the front door.
Before 2009, the driver used the driver to check in the ticket and find the change (it is better to prepare the change yourself), but from 2009 to 2010, the bus has gradually changed to check-in. Similar to China, the difference is When boarding the train at the front door and punching the card, when getting off the bus, punch the card from the back door, so that the card machine can distinguish the number of stops the passengers take and charge according to the number of stops. The first three rows are reserved for women. If there are insufficient seats for women,
the men in the back row of women’s seats should give way to women. Sometimes, even if there is room for a station, the bus driver will not let the lady get on the bus because there is no seat for the lady. It is not allowed to eat, drink, or smoke in the car. Men should never sit next to unfamiliar ladies. At some small stations, if no passenger presses the button next to the seat indicating that he wants to get off at the next stop, and no one wants to get on the bus, the driver will not stop.
Al Ghubaiba (Bur Dubai), Al Sabkha (Deira), Gold Souq (near Al Sabkha), most buses have these three steps, you can transfer here. Bus timetables can be obtained at the bus station.
Taxis are the most common way to travel in Dubai. There are many taxi companies operating 24 hours a day in the city. Most taxis start at 5 dirhams (approximately 9 RMB), and the price per kilometer is 1.8 dirhams (approximately 3.2 RMB). The night start fee is Dh5.5. A pink-painted taxi driven by a lady costs 8 dirhams (approximately 14.6 RMB). Beginning in 2010, if a taxi in Dubai wants to go to Sharjah, or a taxi in Sharjah wants to cross the border to Dubai, passengers must pay an additional 20 dirham transit fee.
Cultural business (Apply for Expo)
On November 27, 2013, the 154th General Assembly of the Bureau of International Exhibitions voted in Paris, France to select the host city for the 2020 registered World Expo. Dubai, the UAE’s bidding city, won 116 votes to 47 votes in the matchup with Russia’s Yekaterinburg. The first Middle Eastern city to be granted the right to host the World Expo.
The theme of Dubai’s bid for this event is “Connect with each other and create the future together”. The duration of the Dubai World Expo is 6 months from October 20, 2020, to April 10, 2021. Dubai’s planned Expo Park covers an area of 438 hectares and is expected to receive 25 million visitors. The UAE government pledged to invest US$6.8 billion for the Expo.
Education in Dubai is generally divided into early education, basic education, and higher education. Early education corresponds to kindergarten education, basic education corresponds to elementary, middle, and high school education, and higher education corresponds to university education.
In Dubai, children can start in kindergarten and go to the same school until they graduate from high school. Many students who have performed well in the school can also directly enter the European and American university headquarters to continue their studies after the completion of high school. Among the more than 200 international schools in Dubai, there are 55 English schools, 28 American schools, 8 IB schools, and 9 English/IB schools. In British schools,
students enter Foundation1 (preschool small class) at the age of three and go to the first grade at the age of 5. It is a 13-year education system, and the 12th and 13th grades complete the A-LEVEL exam. In American schools, students are enrolled in KG1 (preschool class one) at the age of 4 and go to the first grade at the age of 6, which is a 12-year education system. Grades 11 and 12 take IB or AP exams.
The IB system school enrolls in Pre-KG at the age of 3 and enters the first grade at the age of 6, which is also a 12-year education system. The 11th and 12th grades complete the final IB study and examination.
The imperial system is strict and systematic in elementary school. The IB system for pre-kindergarten and elementary level is relatively close to the imperial system, while the American system is more flexible at the elementary level. In middle and high schools, the American system has more subjects than the British system.
The IB system trains students in all aspects, not only learning subject knowledge but also preparing students for entering university. The IB International Baccalaureate program is favored by more and more universities in the world, and is considered to be a “stepping stone for world-renowned universities”.
Unlike other studying abroad countries, Dubai does not provide student visas for students under the age of 18, and because there is no accompanying visa, students enrolling in Dubai International School need to have their parents apply for family visas for their children.
According to research conducted by the International School Consultancy (ISC), there are more than 550 English-language international schools at the basic education level in the UAE, of which nearly half are located in Dubai. There are about 550,000 students of the appropriate age in the UAE’s English International Schools between the ages of 3 and 18-the number of students is much higher than that of any other country in the world.
Dubai has 185 private schools with around 274,000 students. of the 2016-2017 school year, the private school sector in Dubai is close to saturation and has reached a utilization rate of about 90%. At the same time, the total annual tuition of private schools is 6.8 billion dirhams, which is equivalent to approximately 1.85 billion U.S. dollars.
Among the students of private schools in Dubai, only about 12% are native Emirati. In contrast, Indian students are the largest group in Dubai schools, accounting for about 1/3 of the total number of students, followed by Pakistani, Egyptian, and British students. According to the statistics of the number of students from 2016 to 2017 academic year, in descending order, there are 93013 Indian students, 32103 UAE native students, 22754 Pakistani students, 14,172 Egyptian students, and 13,149 British students.
Including international branch schools (IBCs) and local higher education institutions, there are 62 higher education institutions in Dubai. In 2016, these institutions had a total of 60,300 students, including 3,3600 foreign students. Of the 62 higher education institutions in Dubai, 39 are located in the free zone, including 24 international branch schools.
people are enjoying all free medical benefits in Dubai. At the same time, Dubai’s medical tourism industry is also developing rapidly. In 2016, it received approximately 327,000 medical tourists, with almost half of them being male and female tourists. Among them, the largest market is Asian tourists, accounting for 37%, Arab and GCC countries are the second-largest sources, accounting for 31%, and European tourists accounting for 15%
Dubai also has the world’s first comprehensive medical free zone-Dubai Health City, which provides world-class medical services to patients from all over the world every year. In 2010, the first phase of the Healthy City project was officially completed, covering a total area of about 380,000 square kilometers, providing medical services that integrate medical treatment, examination, treatment, nursing, and recuperation for patients around the world.
In the health city, there are general hospitals such as New Dubai Hospital, Rashid Hospital, Maktoum Hospital, more than 90 specialized outpatient clinics and medical laboratories, and more than 140 commercial medical care centers. There is 1,700 medical staff working here. Health City brings together treatment methods from all over the world, such as Western medicine, Chinese medicine, acupuncture and massage, Indian medicine, natural therapy, homeopathy, etc. In the first half of 2014, more than 600,000 patients from around the world came to the Health City for medical treatment.
Dubai Mall (at The Dubai Mall), officially opened on November 4, 2008, with 836,000 square meters of commercial area, the equivalent of a large 100 standard football field, a 10-15 Mall in Mall, employs more than 1,200 retail Shops, more than 150 dining facilities, a five-star hotel, and many leisure shops. In addition to the shopping space, the store also has a world-class aquarium, a unique global tower tour, and an Olympic-standard indoor ice skating rink. The Dubai Mall is also the world’s largest indoor gold market.
Meydan Racecourse (Meydan Racecourse), officially opened on March 27, 2010. It can hold up to 60,000 spectators. It replaced the old racecourse Nad Alcaba Racecourse, which was used until 2009, and built a new hotel, shopping center, movie theater, etc. on the original basis to become a composite commercial facility. This is also the largest racecourse in the world (Edited in July 2018)
History and culture (Language)
The official language of Dubai is Arabic and government documents are also written in Arabic, but English, Hindi, Urdu, and Tagalog are also widely used in daily conversations. Most of the migrant workers do not understand Arabic. Most of the workers from the former British and American colonies such as Southeast Asia and the Philippines, so most of them use English as the lingua franca.
In fact, English is also spoken more than Arabic. It is the coexistence of both. In the business world of Dubai, the application of English is very extensive. For example, employees in commercial companies, employees in shopping malls, hotels, airports, banks, and other places, as well as taxi drivers,
media practitioners, etc. all need to speak fluent English. It embodies the characteristics of Dubai as a multicultural international metropolis. In government departments, such as the police, immigration, courts, prosecutors’ offices, city halls, labor departments, etc.,
because most of the employees hired are Arabs in the country, and there are also many Arab women who are not highly educated, go to these When the department is working, sometimes it is not enough to only speak English. If they can speak Arabic, it caters to the mood of the employees of these “business units” who are more willing to speak their own mother tongue, and they will be closer to them, and the efficiency of work will be improved. Greatly improve. Therefore, when major companies hire public relations personnel who deal with government agencies, they basically hire people who can speak both English and Arabic.
Dubai regards Islam as the state religion, but at the same time there are a large number of non-Islamic foreigners living, so there are very few religious restrictions in Dubai. There are relatively few restrictions on drinking, clothing, entertainment, and food. Some restaurants also sell pork dishes that are banned by Islam.
Regarding drinking, Islam generally prohibits drinking, but there are hotels and restaurants that allow drinking in Dubai. If you have a permit issued by the police department, you can buy alcohol in the market or bring in alcohol from abroad.
If you are a foreign woman, you can also wear clothes similar to shorts and vests on the street like in Europe and the United States. Women from the chief’s family are also allowed to participate in events similar to those of taekwondo and equestrianism in the Beijing Olympics.
Sexual intercourse outside of marriage is illegal, and even foreigners will be arrested.
Although Dubai hosts horse races such as the Dubai World Cup, it does not sell horse race tickets because gambling is prohibited. However, if you predict the outcome of a plural game, some free game cards will be awarded to those with outstanding predicted results.
There are large and small mosques all over Dubai, making it very convenient for people to worship. In addition to Muslims in Dubai, there are Hindus who account for about 12% of the total population, Catholics and Christians who account for about 8% of the total population, and a small number of Sikhs.
These other religions are also respected in Dubai. There are two Christian churches in Dubai, namely St Mary’s of the Roman Catholic Church and Holy Trinity of the Baptist Church. There is one in Jebel Ali. Sikh temple, there is also a Buddhist temple in the Garhud district near Dubai Airport. Dubai is the only place with Hindu and Sikh temples among the seven emirates of the UAE.
Local specialty ( habit)
People in Arabia and Dubai have a habit of drinking coffee. They usually entertain guests with coffee and dates. Some families use coffee pots as family heirlooms.
There is a dish where vegetables, chicken, and bread are cooked and eaten together. There is also chocolate made from camel milk, which is made from camel milk.
famous tourist sites
The Burj Khalifa (Arabic: برج خليفة, English: Burj Khalifa Tower), was built in 2004 and officially completed on January 4, 2010, and was renamed “Burj Khalifa”. The building is the world’s tallest building and man-made structure (compiled in July 2018).
The Burj Khalifa is 828 meters high, with a total of 162 floors and a construction cost of 1.5 billion US dollars. without adding the construction costs of the large shopping malls, lakes, and shorter towers construction of the building itself cost at least US$ 1 billion. . The Burj Khalifa uses a total of 330,000 cubic meters of concrete, 62,000 tons of reinforced steel bars, and 142,000 square meters of glass.
At about 4000 workers and nearly about 100 cranes had been used for deployed pumping concrete vertically over 606 meters. There are 56 elevators in the building with a speed of up to 17.4 m/s, and there is also a double-deck sightseeing elevator that can carry up to 42 people at a time
Burj Al Arab Hotel
Burj Al Arab Hotel (Arabic: برج العرب, English: Burj Al Arab), started construction in 1994 and officially opened in December 1999. Cost 1 billion US dollars. Burj Al Arab Hotel is said to be the first and only seven-star hotel in the world.
The hotel is built on an artificial island in the Persian Gulf 280 meters away from the shore of Jumeirah Beach. It is connected to the land by only a curved road. There is an apron with a cantilever beam structure extending from the edge of the building. The hotel has 56 floors, a height of 321 meters, and 202 superior rooms.
The room area ranges from 170 square meters to 780 square meters. The lowest price is 900 US dollars (about 6,000 yuan), and the highest presidential suit costs 18,000 US dollars (about 12 Ten thousand yuan). The presidential suite is on the 25th floor. The furniture is gilded. It has a cinema, two bedrooms, two living rooms, a dining room, and a dedicated elevator for access
Palm Islands (Palm Islands) refers to a large group of artificial islands built on the coast of Dubai. It is mainly composed of three parts: Palm Jumeirah, Palm Jebel Ali, and Dira artificial islands. Among them, Jebel Ali Palm Island and Dira Artificial Island were suspended in 2008 due to insufficient funds and other issues, and are in an unfinished state.
The Palm Jumeirah started construction in June 2001 and completed the handover of the first residential unit on the island in 2006. In October 2007, Palm Jumeirah became the world’s largest artificial island. At the same time, 75% of the island’s property rights have been transferred, and about 500 families have moved to the island. At the end of 2009, 28 hotels have opened on the island.
The World Island (The World) is a group of artificial islands located on the coast of Dubai. It consists of various small islands forming a rough outline of the world map. The World Island is mainly formed by the dredging of sandbanks along the shallow waters of Dubai. It is one of several man-made island development projects in Dubai. The World Island project was originally designed and proposed by Dubai Chief Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum.
The 300 islands of World Island were built in 2003 and stopped when they encountered the financial crisis in 2008. Although 60% of the island was sold to private contractors for construction in 2008, most of the development failed to start. In July 2012, Lebanon Island was the only island that was developed and commercialized for corporate events and public gatherings. At the end of 2013, only two islands were developed.
The Dubai Museum is an important museum in Dubai. It is located in Al Fadi Castle, built-in 1787, and is the oldest surviving building in Dubai. The museum was opened by the ruler of Dubai in 1971 to showcase the traditional lifestyle of the emirate of Dubai. After entering, visitors can see the structure of the castle and various displays. From the fort there is a road leading to the gallery, showing the general culture of the land, especially in the 19th century, including local antiques and cultural relics of African and Asian countries traded with Dubai.
It also includes several documentaries showing life in the emirate before the advent of oil. In addition to the recently discovered artifacts, there are artifacts from 3000 BC.
In 2007, the Dubai Museum received 1,800 visitors a day and 611,840 visitors a year. In March 2008, the museum had 80,000 visitors. The most popular time is August to April, and the museum received more than 1 million visitors in 2013.
Dubai Creek (Dubai Creek), is located in Dubai, a saltwater river. It divides Dubai into two parts. On one side is the ancient Deira (Deira), which symbolizes the history of Dubai, and on the other side is the younger Bur Dubai, which shows the booming modern city.
People can take a boat-type water vehicle called Abra to shuttle between Dubai Creek.
Dubai Miracle Garden
Dubai Miracle Garden (Dubai Miracle Garden), located in Dubai. Opened on February 14, 2013 (Valentine’s Day), the garden covers an area of 72,000 square meters and has more than 109 million kinds of flowers. In 2013, it was certified as “the world’s largest vertical three-dimensional garden” by the Guinness World Records. Dubai Miracle Garden is an outdoor leisure resort in Dubai and is also known as one of the most beautiful gardens in the world.
In April 2015, the garden won the New Garden Experience Award of the 2015 Garden Tourism Awards
In November 2018, the world city rankings were released, and Dubai ranked ninth
In July 2019, the Xinhua-Baltic International Shipping Center Development Index was released, and Dubai ranked 5th in the world. In September, it ranked sixth in the 2019 World Tourism Cities Development Ranking. On December 26, it ranked 55th on the list of the top 500 global cities in 2019
- Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain (2006)
- Busan Metropolitan City, South Korea (2006)
- Detroit, Michigan, United States (2003)
- Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany (2005)
- Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia (2001)
- Shanghai, China (2009)
- Istanbul, Turkey (1997)
- Padang, Indonesia (2015)
- Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (2010)
- Shenzhen, China (2018)