The State of Israel ( Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל; Arabic: دولة إِسْرَائِيل), referred to as Israel. Belongs to West Asia. It is located on the southeastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, with Lebanon to the north, Syria, and Jordan to the east, and the Red Sea and Egypt to the southwest. On April 12, 2021, Israel’s total population was 9.32 million. of which the Jewish population was 6.89 million, making it the only country in the world where Jews are the main ethnic group.
The ancestor of the Jews in an ancient Semitic branch, originated about 4,000 years ago in Mesopotamia plain, due to migration to avoid natural disasters Egyptian Nile Delta east, The meaning Hebrew is “crossing to the people. At the end of the 13th century BC, he moved to Palestine from Egypt. Around 1000 BC, the State of Israel was established. Since then, it was successively conquered by Assyria, Babylon, the Persian Empire, the Kingdom of Macedonia, and the Roman Empire. In 70 AD, he was driven out of Palestine by the Romans and began the “dispersal” that lasted for nearly 2000 years. At the end of the 19th century, the Zionist movement arose, and Jews began to immigrate to Palestine in large numbers.
After the end of the First World War, the United Kingdom imposed a mandate on the Palestinian areas. In November 1917, the United Kingdom issued the ” Declaration of Balfour “. On November 29, 1947, the United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution and decided to establish an Arab state and a Jewish state in Palestine.
Israel is a developed capitalist country. Contributions to the development of science and technology are considerable. . Israeli scientists have made outstanding contributions in genetics, computer science, optics, engineering, and other technological industries. Israeli research and development industry is the military science and technology industry. And for research and development in agriculture, physics, and medicine.
Israel originally referred to a personal name and evolved into a national title. The earliest history can be traced back to around the 12th century BC. In the past three thousand years of history, the Jews regarded the land of Canaan as the core of their national and spiritual life and called it the ” Holy Land ” or ” Promised Land. ” Israel has a special meaning in Judaism, including temple ruins and related religious rituals, which are important foundations of modern Judaism tradition.
Israel means “brave fighters”, comes from the ” Bible ” of Jewish ancestry Jacob with God ( angels ) wrestling and win, God, Jacob’s name to Israel. Later, twelve tribes were born.
Israel is the birthplace of the world’s major religions Judaism, Islam, and Christianity. The distant Jewish ancestors were the Hebrews of the northwest branch (now called the northern middle branch of Semites) of the ancient Semites. Originated in Mesopotamia about 4000 years ago.
Jacob led his descendants to Egypt and lived there for 400 years. He left Egypt in about 1445 BC and moved back to Canaan (now Palestine ).
Moved to Palestine at the end of the 13th century BC. After being conquered by the Roman Empire, the Jews began to go into exile in Europe.
In the 11th century BC, the United Kingdom of Israel was established. In the tenth century BC, King Solomon, the son of David, split into the North and the South. The North was the Kingdom of Israel composed of ten tribes, and the South was the Kingdom of Judah, which was inherited by David’s descendants.
In 722 and 586 BC, these two kingdoms were conquered by the Assyrians and then destroyed by the Babylonians . Most of the Jews were captured to the Mesopotamia region until the return of the Persian Empire in batches.
In 332 BC, Alexander the Great conquered the area, and later the area of Israel became a battleground between the Seleucid and Ptolemaic dynasties.
From 167 BC to 63 BC, the region of Israel was ruled by the Maccabees. After the Roman Pompeo occupied Palestine, merged Israel into the Syrian province, and supported the Herod family as the acting government. King Herod expanded Jerusalem at the end of the first century BC.
From 66 to 70 AD, due to the atrocities of the Romans, a large-scale Jewish uprising broke out. Later, it was brutally suppressed by the Roman army many times. Jerusalem was destroyed again, and the Jews were driven out of their homeland and scattered around the world. A large-scale uprising broke out in 132 AD and was again suppressed by the Roman army. (See entry: Jewish War )
After experiencing the rule of ancient countries such as Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Greece, Rome, Byzantium, Jews gradually declined in this area and were expelled, scattered all over the world, even Kaifeng, China, has the remains of synagogues. The two most important books of Judaism, the Mishna, and the Talmud were also written during this period.
In 638 AD, Muslims seized control of the area from the Byzantine Empire. After that, several Muslim countries ruled the area, and the Arabs have since become the main residents of the area. It was later conquered by the Umayyad dynasty, Abbasid dynasty, Khwarazmo, and Mongol empires, and was ruled by Mamluk from 1260 to 1516, and then became a province of the Ottoman Empire in 1517
There were several small waves of return in the 18th century. In 1878, Petah Tikva appeared the first large-scale Jewish farm colony. The Jews purchased land from the Ottoman Empire and the Arabs and settled. As the Jewish population increased, the relationship between them and the Arabs became increasingly tense.
In 1896, Theodor Herzl, a Jewish journalist from the Austro-Hungarian Empire in Central Europe, launched the Zionist Movement (also known as the ” Zionist Movement”), calling on Jews from all over the world to return to their homeland and restore their own way of life.
On August 29, 1897, in Basel, Switzerland, he convened the first “World Zionism Congress”, which resolved to establish “a home (or country) recognized by the public and guaranteed by law”. Corresponding institutions such as the “Jewish National Fund” and the “Palestine Land Development Corporation” were established to help Jews from all over the world immigrate to Palestine.
The development of the Zionist movement promoted the second wave of return (1904-1914), and about 40,000 Jews returned to settle.
In 1917, Britain occupied Palestine and Foreign Minister Balfour issued the ” Belfort Declaration “: “His Majesty’s government is in favor of the establishment of a Jewish nation-state in Palestine.
After the First World War, the Jews set off the third and fourth waves of return.
In 1920, the League of Nations commissioned Britain to govern Palestine.
In 1922, the United Kingdom divided the trusteeship into two parts: the east (now Jordan ) was the residence of Arabs, and the west was the Jewish residential area.
In a Palestinian riot that broke out in 1929, Arabs killed 133 Jews. In 1922, the League of Nations passed the “Mandate Mandate” of the United Kingdom on Palestine, stipulating the establishment of a “House of the Jewish People” in Palestine. Later, Jews from all over the world emigrated to Palestine in large numbers. Then there were several riots between 1936 and 1939.
In response, the United Kingdom issued a white paper in 1939, limiting the number of Jews emigrating to 75,000 and restricting Jews from buying land. This white paper was regarded by many Jews and Zionists as a betrayal of the Jews, and that it violated the Balfour Declaration. The Arabs did not calm down, they hoped to completely stop the immigration of Jews. In 1933, the Nazis came to power in Germany, setting off the fifth wave of Jewish return.
In 1940, Jews accounted for 30% of the total number of local residents. The subsequent Holocaust in Europe further promoted the return of the Jews.
Between 1944 and 1948, more than 200,000 Jews came to Palestine through various means.
Restoration of Israel
The number of Jewish immigrants has been increasing steadily since the end of the 19th century. Affected by the Holocaust in World War II, the idea of Jewish restoration has also gained more and more international support. In 1947, in view of the escalating violent conflict between Jews and Arabs and the failure of peace efforts, the British government decided to leave the Palestinian trusteeship.
The United Nations established the “Palestinian Special Committee.” In November 1947, the United Nations General Assembly voted on the “1947 United Nations Partition Plan.” 33 countries approved (including the United States and the former Soviet Union), 13 opposed, and 10 abstained. The resolution was passed: Palestine The region is divided into two countries. Jews and Arabs own approximately 55% and 45% of the territories ( Arab and Jewish ) respectively. Jerusalem is placed under the management of the United Nations in order to avoid conflict.
On November 29, 1947, the day the United Nations passed the partition plan, David Ben-Gurion accepted the plan but was flatly rejected by the League of Arab States. The top leaders of the Arab League Committee ordered a three-day violent attack on Jewish civilians in Israel, attacking buildings, shops, and residential areas. The underground militia forces organized by the Jewish organization launched a counterattack. These battles quickly spread into large-scale conflicts. This led to the Israeli War of Independence in 1948.
On May 14, 1948, at midnight before the end of the British trusteeship period, the State of Israel was formally announced as the National Day of Israel.
In the national elections on January 25, 1949, 85% of eligible voters participated in the vote, and then the first session of Parliament with 120 seats was held. Two people who led Israel to build a nation became the leaders of the country. The Jewish Agency leader David Ben-Gurion was elected as the first prime minister; the leader of the World Zionist Organization Haim Weizmann was elected by the parliament. Serve as president.
On May 11, 1949, Israel obtained a seat in the United Nations and became the 59th member state.
1948 War of Independence
After the founding of Israel, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon declared war on Israel and started the Israeli War of Independence in 1948. Syrian, Lebanese, and Iraqi forces in the north were all blocked close to the border, while Jordanian forces from the east captured the eastern part of Jerusalem and attacked the western part of the city. However, the Jewish militia successfully blocked the Jordanian army, and the underground National Army organization (Irgun) also blocked the Egyptian army from the south.
Beginning in June, the United Nations announced a one-month ceasefire, during which time the Israel Defense Forces was formally established. After several months of fighting, the two sides reached a ceasefire agreement in 1949 and demarcated a temporary boundary. This boundary line was called the “Green Line”. Israel gained an additional 23.5% of the jurisdiction in the west of the Jordan River, while Jordan occupies a mountainous area in southern Israel and Samaria, which was later called the West Bank. Egypt occupies a small piece of land in the coastal area, which was later called the Gaza Strip.
A large number of Arab populations fled the newly established Jewish state. The Palestinians called the exile a “catastrophe” (النكبة). It is estimated that 400,000 to 900,000 Palestinian refugees will live in exile. The United Nations estimates that there are 711,000 people. The unresolved conflicts between Israel and Arab countries, as well as the problem of Palestine refugees, continue to this day.
With the 1948 war, the Jewish population in the West Bank and Gaza Strip began to withdraw to Israel, and a large number of Jewish refugees from Arab countries tripled the population of Israel. In the next few years, nearly 850,000 Serfadian Jews fled or were deported from Arab countries. Of these, about 600,000 moved to Israel, while others migrated to Europe and the United States.
Between 1954 and 1955, as Israeli Prime Minister Moshe Sharett (Moshe Sharett) Egypt attempted bombing attempt and the outbreak of the scandal, resulting in Israeli politics into disrepute.
Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal in 1956, and Britain and France were quite dissatisfied with it. After being attacked by a series of Arab underground militia forces, Israel secretly allied with Britain and France and declared war on Egypt. After the Suez Canal crisis, three countries were condemned by the United Nations, and Israel was forced to withdraw its troops from the Sinai Peninsula.
In 1955, David Ben-Gurion became the Prime Minister of Israel again, and he remained in office until 1963 before resigning. After Gurion’s resignation, Levi Eshkol (Levi Eshkol) successor to the prime minister.
In 1961, Adolf Eichmann, a Nazi war criminal and one of the masterminds of the European Jewish Holocaust, was arrested in Buenos Aires, Argentina by an Israeli Mossad Intelligence Agency officer and was sent back to Israel for trial. Eichmann became the only criminal in Israeli history to be sentenced to death by a court.
In the political arena, relations between Israel and Arab countries became tight again in May 1967.
Syria, Jordan, and Egypt revealed their intentions for the war, and Egypt expelled the UN peacekeeping force in the Gaza Strip. Egypt violated the previous treaty and blocked Israel’s strategically important Tiran Strait, and then deployed a large number of tanks and warplanes on the Israeli border. Israel, therefore, launched a preemptive strike against Egypt on June 5 on the grounds of Egypt’s provocation. offensive.
In this Six-Day War, Israel defeated all the armies of its neighboring Arab countries and achieved complete victory on the air force battlefield. Israel captured the entire West Bank, the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and the Golan Heights in one go. The Green Line drawn in 1949 has become the administrative boundary between Israel’s jurisdiction over domestic territories and occupied areas. Later, after signing a peace agreement, Israel returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt.
In 1969, Mrs. Meir was elected as Israel’s first female prime minister.
The period from 1968 to 1972 was called the War of Attrition, and many small-scale conflicts broke out frequently on the borders between Israel, Syria, and Egypt. In addition, in the early 1970s, the Palestinian armed forces launched an unprecedented terrorist attack on Israel and the Jews of other countries. In the 1972 Summer Olympics, the Munich tragedy broke out.
Palestinian armed militias held hostage members of the Israeli delegation as members of the Israeli delegation. Hostages, all hostages were killed in the end. Israel launched a retaliatory “Operation Wrath of God” (Operation Wrath of God), in which a group of Israeli Mossad Intelligence Service operatives assassinated the murderers who planned the Munich tragedy around the world.
On October 6, 1973, which coincided with the Jewish traditional Yom Kippur, Egypt and Syria launched a raid on Israel. Although the Arab countries successfully attacked the under-prepared Israeli army in the early stages of the war, Egypt and Syria were eventually repelled by Israel because Israel relied on powerful foreign aid from the United States and satellite technology. In the years after the war, the situation became calmer, and Israel and Egypt were finally able to reach a peace agreement.
In 1974, Yitzhak Rabin succeeded Mrs. Meir as the fifth prime minister.
The 1977 parliamentary elections became a major turning point in Israel’s political history. Since 1948, the Labour Party coalition (המערך), which has dominated Israel’s political arena, was defeated by Menachem. The coalition party led by Begin was defeated, and this election was also called a “revolution” in Israel.
In November 1977, Egyptian President Sadat visited Israel for an unprecedented visit and gave a speech in the Israeli Parliament. This was the first time that Israel was recognized by an Arab country since its founding. The reserve officers of the Israeli army also formed a peace movement to support the peace talks. After Sadat’s visit, peace talks between the two countries finally signed the Camp David peace treaty.
In March 1979, Begin and Sadat reached an Israel-Egypt peace treaty in Washington, DC, the United States. With the signing of the treaty, Israel withdrew its troops from the Sinai Peninsula and withdrew from the immigration area established there since the 1970s. Israel also agreed to allow Palestine to gain autonomy based on the Green Line drawn in 1949.
On June 7, 1981, the Israeli Air Force bombed a nuclear reactor built by Iraq in Osirak, preventing Iraq’s attempts to manufacture nuclear weapons. This mission was also known as Operation Babylon.
In 1982, Israel launched an offensive against Lebanon and was involved in the Lebanese civil war that has been going on since 1975. Israel’s reason for the war was to protect Israel’s colonial zone in the north, which was often subjected to terrorist attacks from Lebanon at that time. After establishing a forty-kilometer barrier, the IDF continued to advance and even captured the capital Beirut.
The Israeli army expelled the Palestine Liberation Organization from Lebanon and forced the PLO to transfer its base to Tunisia. Unable to bear the pressure of the war, Prime Minister Begin resigned in 1983 and was succeeded by Yitzhak Shamir. Israel finally withdrew most of its troops in Lebanon in 1986, and the border buffer zone was maintained until Israel unilaterally withdrew its troops in 2000.
In the 1980s, the right-wing government originally led by Yitzhak Shamir was replaced by the left-wing Simon Perez. Peres began serving as prime minister in 1984 but was replaced by Shamir in 1986, and Shamir reached an agreement for an alliance of political parties. The great Palestinian uprising that broke out in 1987 ignited a series of riots in the occupied area. After the riots, Shamir was re-elected as prime minister in the 1988 election. In 1980, Most countries have their embassies in Tel Aviv. Jerusalem is effectively controlled by Israel.
In the Persian Gulf War, although Israel was not one of the anti-Iraqi coalition countries and did not actually participate in the war in Iraq, Israel was still hit by 39 SCUD missiles. The missiles did not directly kill any Israeli citizens, but some people died because of incorrect use of prepared gas masks.
In addition, an Israeli was hit by shards of a Patriot missile and died. During the war, Israel also provided gas masks to Palestinians in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip to protect them from Iraq’s chemical and biological weapons. Despite this, the PLO still expressed support for the Saddam regime. Some Palestinian residents even stood on the roof cheering for the incoming SCUD missiles, although in the end they still used gas masks provided by the Israelis.
In the early 1990s, a large number of Jews in the former Soviet Union began to immigrate to Israel. According to Israel’s return law, these people can obtain Israeli citizenship when they arrive in Israel. Approximately 380,000 people arrived in Israel in 1990-1991. Although the Israeli public was quite supportive of the return to law at first, many of the problems caused by the new immigrants were used by the Labor Party as a handle in the election campaign, criticizing the ruling coalition party for not solving their work and housing problems.
As a result, in the 1992 election, a large number of new immigrants voted for the Labor Party, causing the left to rise again. After the election, Yitzhak Rabin became prime minister. During the election, the Labor Party promised to greatly improve Israel’s domestic security and relations with Arab countries. By the end of 1993, the Israeli government abandoned the 1991 Madrid Agreement framework and signed the Oslo Accords with the PLO. In 1994, Jordan became the second Arab country after Egypt to commit to peaceful coexistence with Israel.
November 4, 1995, Rabin of Israel was an extreme nationalist who assassinated.
As a result of Rabin’s assassination, the public’s perception of the Oslo Agreement also improved slightly, which greatly increased Simon Perez’s support and enabled him to win the 1996 election. However, a new wave of suicide bombings and Arafat’s statement in praise of the bombers caused public opinion to reverse again, and in May 1996 they lost to Benjamin Netanyahu of the Coalition Party.
On July 19, 2018, the Knesset passed the Jewish National State Act.
On January 1, 2019, Israel officially withdrew from UNESCO.
Natural environment – Regional location
Israel is located in the Palestine region of West Asia, southeast of the Mediterranean Sea; West Asia, where the three continents of Asia, Africa, and Europe meet. The coast is a long and narrow plain, with mountains and plateaus in the east. Israel borders Lebanon to the north, Syria, and Jordan to the east, and Egypt to the southwest. Israel has a coastline connected to the Mediterranean Sea to the west and the Gulf of Eilat (also known as the Gulf of Aqaba ) to the south.
The total area of Israel is 25,000 square kilometers, of which the Negev region accounts for more than half of the area, reaching more than 12,000 square kilometers. The border between Israel and Egypt is 220 kilometers long, and the border with Gaza controlled by Hamas is 51 kilometers.
It is part of the Gaza Strip and the Jordan River. In 1947, the area of Palestine before the partition was 27,090 square kilometers. Between 1948 and 1973, Israel occupied a large area of Arab territories in the four Arab-Israeli wars and withdrew part of it after the 1980s. The actual area under its jurisdiction is 25,740 square kilometers, including the Golan Heights and parts of the Jordan River.
The coastal plain along the Mediterranean coast extends from the Lebanese border in the north to Gaza in the south. The soil in this area is fertile and moist and is an important area for agriculture and fruit cultivation. The eastern part of the coastal plain is the central plateau, the northern part of the plateau is the hills of the Galilee Mountains, and the area further south is the Samaria Mountains composed of many small and fertile valley areas; further south is the Samaria Mountains. The deserted Judea hills.
The eastern part of the Central Plateau is the Great Rift Valley of Jordan, which is part of the 6500km-long Rift Valley of East Africa. The rift valley in Israel is composed of the Jordan River, the Sea of Galilee, and the Dead Sea. Negev desert by the composition of some 12,000 square kilometers of desert, accounting for half of the land area of Israel, in the Negev desert, is geographically part of the Sinai peninsula extends.
Israel has a Mediterranean climate with dry and hot summers. From Mount Hermon at an altitude of 2810 meters to the Dead Sea, the lowest point on the earth, which is 392 meters below the horizon, the climate is obviously regional and the conditions vary. The coastal plains are hot and humid in summer, slightly cold and rainy in winter, and occasionally light snow in the hilly area. In the Jordan Valley region, the summer is dry and hot, while the southern region has a semi-arid climate, with warm days during the day and cool nights.
Israel has a Mediterranean climate, characterized by long, hot, drier summers and relatively short, cool, rainy winters. Israel’s climate is affected by the adjacent subtropical Sahara and Arabian deserts, as well as the subtropical hot and humid climate along the eastern coast of the Mediterranean. The climate conditions vary considerably across Israel and vary depending on the altitude, latitude, and differences between the regions and the Mediterranean. The distance changes.
Capitals in brackets: Jerusalem District ( Jerusalem ), Northern District ( Nazareth ), Haifa District ( Haifa ), Central District ( Ramla ), Tel Aviv District ( Tel Aviv ), Southern District ( Beer Sheva ).
National symbol And Country names
The State of Israel referred to as Israel. Israel ( Hebrew: מְדִינַתיִשְׂרָאֵל meaning “those who wrestle with God”, Arabic: دولةإسرائيل), the country name from the ” Bible ” of Jewish ancestry Jacob with God ( angels ) wrestling and win, God (angels) will ya The name of each was changed to Israel. Or people will ask why they are called “wrestlers with gods” when they are clearly wrestling with angels? Because in the ancient Jewish religious literature, the word “God” can refer to both God and angels. Regarding Jacob’s wrestling with God, the word “God” is used in the Bible to record that Jacob wrestled with God. This has caused many people in China to mistakenly believe that God is wrestling with Jacob.
The Israeli flag has a rectangular shape with a length to width ratio of about 3:2. The bottom of the flag is white, with a blue band on the top and bottom. The blue and white colors come from the color of the shawl used by Jews in prayer. In the center of the white flag, there is a blue six-pointed star. This is the star of the king of David in ancient Israel. The name of the second king of Israel, David, means “the beloved.” The star of David symbolizes the country. Power.
Emblem of Israel from biblical seven golden candlesticks, respectively, from the Old Testament in the Bible ” Exodus “, ” Zechariah,” and the New Testament, ” Revelation .” The shape on the national emblem is taken from the description in the Book of Zechariah (slightly different from the book of Exodus, not one but seven, and there are olive trees on both sides). The golden lampstand signifies that Israel is a testimony of God on earth.
Gold signifies the divine disposition of God. In the book of Zechariah, the seven lampstands are the seven eyes of God. There are olive branches on both sides of the lampstand, and there are two olive branches with golden oil on the lampstand. In the book of Zechariah, it is said that it is the son of oil. It symbolizes the high priest Joshua and the governor Zerubbabel during the rebuilding of the temple in Israel. According to the two important functions of priest and king.
” Hope Song ” was a Jewish rabbi songwriter, composer for the Jews in NAFTA · · Herz Naim Bell.
” Song of Hope ” is composed of traditional Jewish tunes. This song was originally an ode to the Zionists and was first sung at the first World Zionist Congress in 1897. It was confirmed as the national anthem after the founding of Israel. Lyrics: Hidden deep in my heart is the soul of the Jews. Towards the homeland of the east, are the eyes of Zion. Even though two thousand years of wandering, hope has not disappeared, Zion and Jerusalem, ah, we will return to our hometowns with freedom.
According to the Israeli Census Bureau, as of April 2018, Israel has a population of 8.842 million, of which 74.8% are Jews (mostly Ashkenazi Jews), 20% are Arabs, and 5% are “other” races. Among Jews, 68% were born in Israel, usually the second or third generation of Israelis. Of the other 32% born in foreign countries, 22% were from Europe and 10% were from Asia and Africa, including The Arab world is included.
Until 2014, there were more than 350,000 Israeli citizens living in various settlements in the West Bank. Some of them have formed urban scales. Three of them have populations of more than 30,000 and have obtained urban status, such as Ali Ai. The flesh-the city also has a national university. Including many settlements that had been established before the 1948 War and relocated after the Six-Day War. Approximately 300,000 Israeli citizens live in eastern Jerusalem, which has been occupied by Israel since the Six-Day War. There were about 8,500 Israelis living in settlements in the Gaza Strip until 2005 when Israel unilaterally withdrew its troops and ordered the removal of all settlements there.
Israel is a parliamentary country. The parliament is the highest authority with legislative power. It is responsible for enacting and amending national laws, voting on political issues, approving the appointment of cabinet members and supervising the work of the government, and electing the president and speaker. Candidates for parliament run for political parties. Israel has no constitution, only basic laws such as the Parliamentary Law, the Presidential Law, and the Cabinet Law. The Cabinet is accountable to Parliament. Israel is the only free and democratic country with a complete multi-party system in the Middle East. Its citizens have all kinds of political rights and civil liberties.
Israel has no formal written constitution, only the Parliamentary Law, the National Land Law, the Presidential Law, the Government Law, the National Economic Law, the National Defense Forces Law, the Jerusalem Law, and the Judicial System Law There are a total of 12 basic laws, including the National Auditor General Law, the Human Dignity and Freedom Law, the Professional Freedom Law, and the Jewish National State Law.
Also known as “Knesset” (the original meaning is “the Jewish synagogue”), a unicameral parliament with 120 seats is the highest authority of the country, has legislative power, and is responsible for formulating and modifying national laws. Members are elected by universal suffrage, and the election adopts a proportional representation system. Candidates participate in the election by political parties, and voters only need to vote for the parties they support. The political parties that have obtained more than 2% of the votes will allocate their seats in proportion to the number of votes.
On January 22, 2013, the 19th parliament was elected and consisted of 13 political parties. Among them, the Likud-“Our Homeland Israel” campaign coalition had 31 seats, the “Future” Party 19 seats, the Labor Party 15 seats, and the “Jewish” There are 12 seats in the Homeland Party, 11 seats in the Shas Party, 7 seats in the Biblical Judaism Alliance, 6 seats in the “Movement” Party, 6 seats in the Meretz Party, 4 seats in the United Arab List, 4 seats in the Communist Party of Israel, 3 seats in the Ballard Party, Kadima Party has 2 seats. The speaker is Yariv Levin, who took office on May 14, 2020, from the Likud Group.
The government is composed of one or several political parties that have a majority of seats in the parliament. After the results of the parliamentary elections were announced, the president nominated the prime minister based on the opinions of all parties in the parliament and authorized him to form a cabinet. The general reason is to successfully complete the cabinet formation. The current government (33rd) was established on March 18, 2013. It is composed of the Likud-“Our Homeland Israel” Campaign Coalition, the “Future” Party, the “Jewish Homeland” Party, and the “Movement” Party. 68 seats in China, including the prime minister and 21 ministers.
As of 2014, the main members of the government are Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of Public Diplomacy and Diaspora Affairs Benjamin Netanyahu (BENJAMIN NETANYAHU); Minister of Defense Moses Ya’alon (MOSHE YA’ALON); Minister of Communications and Rear Minister of Defense GILAD ERDAN; Minister of Finance YAIR LAPID; Minister of Religious Services, Minister of Jerusalem and Exile Affairs, Minister of Economy Naftali Bennett (NAFTALI BENNETT); Minister of Public Security YITZHAK AHARONOVITCH (YITZHAK AHARONOVITCH); Minister of Justice Zippi Livni (TZIPI LIVNI).
The judiciary consists of three levels: the Supreme Court, the District Court, and the basic courts. In addition, there are specialized courts governing transportation, labor, and youth, and religious courts of different religious denominations.
The Supreme Court has the power of final adjudication and the powers of the first instance against the government, government ministers, and all public officials or institutions. It also assumes the duties of the Supreme Court. The justices of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President on the recommendation of a special committee composed of Supreme Court judges, members of the Bar Association, and politicians.
The judge is lifelong and retires at the age of 70. Israel’s judicial branch is composed of a three-tier structure of courts. At the lowest level are the district courts, which are located in most cities. The second layer is the district court, which also functions as a court of appeal and a local court. It is distributed in five cities: Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, Haifa, Beer Sheva, and Nazareth.
The top court is the Supreme Court of Israel, located in Jerusalem. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is Dorit Beinisch. The Supreme Court is the highest court of appeal and also functions as the High Court (HCQJ). The High Court is mainly responsible for resolving individual citizens’ petitions to the court. The replies to these petitions are usually carried out by government agencies (including the Israel Defense Forces). Such petitions may allow the High Court to make a decision to guide government departments to correct administrative methods.
Ordinary judges are jointly elected by a committee composed of Congress, judges of the Supreme Court, and members of the Israeli Bar Association. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is approved by the Attorney General and is responsible for appointing the standing officials of all courts.
The religious courts (Judaism, Islam, and Christianity) have exclusive legal rights in the judgment of marriage and divorce.
The Israeli political parties are complex and constantly changing, mainly including:
(1) Likud Group (LIKUD): In September 1973, it was jointly formed by the Ghahar Group, the Freedom Center, the Ram Party, the People’s Party, and the National Land Integrity Movement. In 2013, Likud formed a campaign alliance with the “Our Homeland Israel” party in the 19th parliamentary elections and won a total of 31 seats. Netanyahu successfully formed a cabinet again and was re-elected as prime minister.
(2) ” Israel Our Homeland ” (YISRAELBEITEINU): A right-wing political party established in 1999. Its main supporters are Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union, and its chairman is Avigdor Lieberman. In 2009, the 18th parliamentary election won 15 seats, becoming the third-largest party in parliament and participating in the coalition government with Netanyahu as prime minister. In the 19th parliamentary election in 2013, it formed a campaign alliance with the Likud Group and won a total of 31 seats, and joined the government.
(3) “Future” Party (YESHATID): A secular center party established in April 2012. The main supporter is the middle class and the chairman is Yail Rapid. In the 19th parliamentary election in 2013, he won 19 seats in one fell swoop, became the second-largest party in the parliament, joined the government, and obtained 5 ministerial positions in finance, education, and technology.
(4) Israel’s Labor Party (ISRAELLABOURPARTY): predecessor was founded in 1930 by Israel Workers Party ( “Mapa Yi”), after the 1968 merger with some small party was renamed “Israel’s Labor Party.” In 2013, the Labour Party won 15 seats in the 19th parliamentary elections and did not join the government, making it the largest opposition party. The current chairman Avi Gabe.
(5) The “Jewish Homeland” Party (HABAYITHAYEHUDI-THEJEWISHHOME) was established in November 2008. In 2009, he won 3 seats in the 18th parliament and joined the government. In the 19th parliamentary election in 2013, he won 12 seats and joined the government. Party Chairman Naftali Bennet served as Minister of Religious Services, Minister of Jerusalem and the Minister of Exile Affairs, and Minister of Economy.
(6) Shas Party (SHAS): The Orthodox Jewish political party established in 1984 to represent Eastern Jews. The chairman is Eliyahu Yishai. In the 18th parliamentary election, it won 11 seats, making it the fifth-largest party. In the 19th parliamentary election in 2013, he won 11 seats and became an opposition party.
(7) Israel’s Kadima (Hebrew: קדימה, Qādīmāh, English: Forward), the centrist political parties, by former Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon on November 21, 2005, to create, the incumbent party chairman Shaul Mo Faz.
In 1939 in Jerusalem President Ruben Rivlin was born. From 1986 to 1988, he was the head of the Jerusalem branch of the Israeli right-wing party “Freedom Movement”. In 1988, the “Freedom Movement” was incorporated into the Likud Group and was elected as a member of the Parliament as a member of Likud. He lost the election in 1992, but was re-elected in 1996 and was re-elected until 2014. From 2001 to 2003, he served as Minister of Communications. From 2003 to 2006, he served as Speaker. In 2007, he lost in the presidential election. He served as Speaker again from 2009 to 2013. Inaugurated as President in July 2014, he is the 10th President of Israel with a term of 7 years.
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. Born in Tel Aviv in 1949. Master of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA. Served as Deputy Chief of the Israeli Embassy in the United States and Permanent Representative to the United Nations. Elected Member of Parliament in 1988.
Elected Chairman of Likud Group in 1993. Elected Prime Minister in 1996. In May 1999, he resigned as chairman of Likud after failing to participate in the election for prime minister and announced his withdrawal from politics. From 2002 to 2005, he served successively as Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of Finance. In December 2005, he was re-elected as Chairman of Likud Group. He became prime minister in March 2009. Re-elected in March 2013, May 2015, and May 2020.
It was in Tel Aviv (TEL AVIV) when the nation was founded, and moved to Jerusalem (JERUSALEM) in 1950, but it has not been generally recognized by the international community. On July 30, 1980, the Parliament passed a bill declaring Jerusalem to be the “eternal and indivisible capital” of Israel. There have been disputes between Arab countries and Israel regarding the status and belonging of Jerusalem. The countries that have established diplomatic relations with Israel have established their embassies in Tel Aviv or its surrounding cities.
In 2017.the United States, Guatemala, the Czech Republic. and other countries recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and planned to move the embassy to Jerusalem. According to the understanding reached between Israel and Palestine in 2000 and the general aspirations of the international community, the future Jerusalem should accommodate the capitals of two countries: West Jerusalem is the capital of Israel, East Jerusalem is the capital of Palestine, that is, “one city and two provinces”, while the old city with special status is suspended under international co-management, In May 2018, the United States, Guatemala, and Paraguay move
moved their embassies in Israel to Jerusalem.
Israel often maintains huge deficits on the current account. These deficits are mainly derived from capital transactions with foreign countries and foreign borrowing, although some economists also believe that these deficits show the characteristics of Israel’s mature market economy. Israel has extensive oil refining, diamond mining, and semiconductor manufacturing industries. According to data from the World Bank, Israel has an economic system with the best management and the best protection of property rights in the Middle East.
About half of the Israeli government’s external debt is owed by the United States, usually from economic and military support. In addition, a large part is owned by individual investors, usually through the Israeli government bond scheme. The debt purchased by the United States and the public debt purchased by individual investors have enabled the Israeli government to obtain loans and sometimes obtain interest below the market interest rate.
Israel’s high-quality university education has established a high enthusiasm and educated people, mainly responsible for promoting the country’s high-tech prosperity and rapid economic development.
24% of the Israeli working population has a university degree, which makes Israel the third-highest degree of education among the industrialized countries, second only to the United States and the Netherlands. 12% of the population has a college degree or above.
In recent years, the very important diamond industry in Israel has also been affected by changes in the industrial environment and increased competition from the Far East.
Israel is the most powerful, modern, and economically developed country in the Middle East, and it is a developed country. It has an economic system with the best management and the best protection of property rights in the region. Israel’s contribution to the development of science and technology is also quite outstanding.
Israel is the only developed country in the Middle East. Israel’s high-tech industries are world-renowned, with advanced technologies in the fields of military technology, electronics, communications, computer software, medical equipment, biotechnology engineering, agriculture, and aviation. Its electronic monitoring system and unmanned aircraft are very advanced and have a high reputation worldwide.
Israel’s over 80 NASDAQ-listed companies rank third in the world after the United States and Canada. These include the world’s largest generic pharmaceutical company-TEVA, Israel’s largest company-the global network security product giant CheckPoint Software Technology, and the well-known defense contractor Elbit Systems. Israel is regarded as the country with the highest degree of economic development, commercial freedom, press freedom, and overall human development in the Middle East world.
Ruth, an immunology scholar in Israel with 14 Nobel Prize winners. RuthArnon and scientists jointly invented the immune system drug Copaxone to take care of 250,000 multiple sclerosis patients worldwide
Israel is the most industrialized and economically developed country in the Middle East. Israel has a well-developed market economy, but the government also performs certain management. Israel belongs to a mixed economy with a high degree of industrialization. It is dominated by knowledge-intensive industries and has high technical levels in high value-added agriculture, biochemical, electronics, and military industries. Israel’s overall economic strength is relatively strong, and its competitiveness ranks among the highest in the world.
For more than 50 years, Israel, with its poor land and shortage of resources, has persisted in taking the road of being a powerful country with science and technology, paying attention to education and personnel training, so that its economy can develop rapidly. The development of Israel’s high-tech industries has attracted worldwide attention, especially with advanced technologies and advantages in electronics, communications, computer software, medical equipment, biotechnology engineering, agriculture, and aviation.
Israel is a country in the Middle East that realizes scientific irrigation. Israel is located on the edge of a desert zone and lacks water resources. The severe water shortage has made Israel form a unique drip irrigation water-saving technology in agriculture, making full use of existing water resources and turning a large desert into an oasis. Farmers with less than 5% of the total population not only feed the people but also export large quantities of high-quality fruits, vegetables, flowers, and cotton.
Israeli culture is made up of Judaism and Jewish historical experience over thousands of years. With all kinds of immigrants from hundreds of countries on six continents around the world, Israel’s society is quite rich and diverse, and it is also very creative. The Israeli government encourages and will also fund art activities. Cities such as Tel Aviv, Haifa, and Jerusalem have established complete art museums, and many urban farms have similar museums or historic sites.
The Israel Museum in Jerusalem contains ancient Dead Sea scrolls, as well as other extensive collections of Judaism and Jewish art. The Great Diaspora Museum (ביתהתפוצות) located on the campus of Tel Aviv University is also quite well-known. Many cities and towns in Israel also have art villages.
According to a survey conducted by the Israeli Census Bureau, 76.1% of Israelis believe in Judaism, 16.2% are Christian, 2.1% are Islam, 1.6% are Druze, and 3.9% are other faiths.
On November 23, 2014, the Israeli Prime Minister’s Office issued a statement that the Israeli Cabinet approved the bill defining Israel as a “Jewish State”
The Israeli writer Samuel Joseph Agnon won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1966.
Israeli music is a mixture of Western music and Eastern music. Therefore, Israeli music usually adopts eclecticism and absorbs the influence of diaspora Jews from all over the world. Israeli music has also absorbed elements of modern culture. From Jewish songs, Asian songs, Arab pop songs—especially Yemeni singers, to hip-hop music and heavy metal music are all components of modern Israeli music
Traditional Israeli folk music is usually related to the ideals and visions of Zionism, such as the theme depicting young Jewish children constructing and defending a beautiful homeland. A similar subject is often called שיריארץישראל (“Song of Israel
Israel’s Classical Music Orchestra and the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra (Israel Philharmonic Orchestra) led by Zubin Mehta are also well-known internationally. Dudu Fisher, Yitzhak Perlman, Pinchas Zukerman, and others are all well-known classical music players from Israel.
Sports in Israel, just like other countries, is a very important national leisure activity. Israel’s sports culture is more similar to European countries. The development of sports in Israel can be traced back to the time when Israel was founded. Although football and basketball are regarded as the most popular sports in Israel, Israel also has outstanding performance in many other sports such as handball and track and field and is also actively engaged in the development and promotion of various sports.
In Israel, sports culture has traditionally focused on participation rather than on producing elite athletes. One of the reasons is because the implementation of the compulsory military service system requires almost all Israeli citizens over the age of 18 to join the military training.
Another reason maybe because of the Jewish traditional spirit, which emphasizes the importance of cultivating a healthy body and mind. Will not support the pursuit of competitive forms of sports. This tradition also stems from the historical idea of the Maccabee family (and the re-dedication of the Temple Festival ) to boycott the Olympic Games. Because of this, many Israelis like non-competitive sports, such as swimming, hiking, and playing Matkot (an Israeli sport similar to tennis) on the beach.
However, many modern Israelis are hardly inferior to other Europeans in their enthusiasm for supporting football and basketball teams. In the Olympic Games, Israel has won medals in judo, kayaking, and windsurfing.
The Israel Baseball League, established in 2007, is the world’s first professional baseball league that only plays seven games in a season. If there is a tie, a home run will be used to determine the outcome, just like a football PK battle. At the end of the 2007 season, it was disbanded due to insufficient funding.
Israel’s achievements in major international sports games:
- Summer Olympics: 1 gold, 1 silver, 5 bronze, and 7 medals (more than 80)
- Summer Universiade: 1 gold, 3 silver, 1 bronze, and 5 medals (68th)
- Asian Games: 18 gold, 14 silver, 14 bronze, and 46 medals (20th)
- World Games: 1 bronze and 1 medal (76th)
- Winter Universiade: 1 gold and 1 medal (33rd)
- Summer Youth Olympic Games: 3 golds, 2 silvers, and 5 medals (15th)
- World Martial Arts Games: 1 silver and 1 medal (58th)
2008 ended, a total of 6 Israeli world heritage (both cultural heritage), as follows: Acre old city, Tel Aviv White City, Old City of Jerusalem and the city wall, Masada, Beersheba Bible monuments, Spice Route
On December 22, 2017, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu officially announced that Israel will withdraw from UNESCO at the end of 2018.
Shabbat: Every Friday sunset to Saturday sunset
Rosh Hashanah: Approximately September in the Gregorian calendar
Yom Kippur: September and October about Gregorian calendar
Feast of Tabernacles: Approximately September and October of the Gregorian calendar
Passover: approximately March and April of the Gregorian calendar
Holocaust Remembrance Day: Approximately April and May.
Independence Day (National Day): Approximately April and May of the Gregorian calendar. Israel declared its independence on May 14, 1948. Although Israel uses the Gregorian calendar in its daily life, the Jewish calendar is used for national holidays. Therefore,
the Independence Day of each year is not necessarily May 14 in the Gregorian calendar.
The Israeli army is composed of a unified Israel Defense Forces (IDF). No other military department has appeared independently in history. Both the navy and air force are under the jurisdiction of the army. There are also other paramilitary departments responsible for different levels of Israeli national security (such as the Border Police and the Internal Security Service). The predecessor of the Israel Defense Forces was the underground army (Haganah) organized during British rule.
The Israel Defense Forces are one of the militaries with the highest defense budget in the Middle East and are also listed as one of the most well-trained troops in the world. In terms of personnel, the main advantage of the Israel Defense Forces is the excellent quality of its personnel training and complete systems, rather than the number of personnel. There are also some institutions or enterprises in Israel that specialize in producing and developing weapon technology for the Defense Forces, while others are imported from abroad (mostly from the United States).
Most Israelis (both men and women) were drafted into the army when they were 18. Some immigrants will also join the Israel Defense Forces voluntarily. The exception is Arab citizens. Most Arab citizens are not conscripted in order to avoid conflicts of interest that might break out in wars with other Arab countries. Others who do not need to be soldiers include the disabled, married women, or those who have religious reasons.
Minorities such as Bedouins are also involved in the Israel Defense Forces. Since 1956, the Druze community has been recruited by the Israel Defense Forces just like the Jews. Those who are enrolled in religious institutions can be deferred for enlistment. Most Jewish Orthodox people will continue to postpone their service until they exceed the legal age of service. This practice has caused considerable controversy in Israel.
Although citizens of Arab descent are not included in the conscription, they can also join the army voluntarily.
After serving compulsory military service, the Israeli man was transferred to the IDF reserve force and worked for several weeks each year until he was 40 years old.
The International Atomic Energy Agency has never been inspected by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The International Atomic Energy Agency declared that they believe Israel “is a country with nuclear weapons.” However, the Israeli government is uncommitted.
Information on Israel’s nuclear weapons projection capabilities is easier to obtain than detailed information on nuclear weapons research programs. Israel is one of the countries in the Middle East that is leading the development of medium-range ballistic missiles. The ballistic missile series named “Jericho” (Jericho) has been deployed as early as the 1970s. There are currently three series: Jericho Type 1, Type 2, and Type 3. The Jericho II missile has been in service since the mid-1980s and has an estimated range of at least 1,500 kilometers. The latest Jericho III missile is estimated to have a range of at least 4,500 kilometers. Other estimates believe that the Jericho III type has a range of up to 7,800 kilometers.
In addition to ballistic missile technology, Israel maintains a series of Dolphin-class ( Dolphin-class ) traditionally powered submarines. It is generally speculated that Dolphin-class submarines are equipped with Israeli-made medium-range cruise missiles (range up to 1,450 kilometers) capable of carrying nuclear warheads.
The land, sea, and air transportation industries are well developed. Among them, land transport accounted for half of the goods, and ship and air transport each accounted for a quarter. The total mileage of highways open to traffic across the country is 18,096 kilometers, and the total length of railways is 1001.4 kilometers. The main ports are Haifa, Ashdod and Eilat. There are 48 airports across the country, the main airport being Ben Gurion International Airport, which handled 13 million passengers in 2011. The main airlines are Israel Airlines (ELAL).
The state of Israel is small, and it only takes more than one hour to drive from Jerusalem in the east to Tel Aviv on the west coast. This determines that Israel’s traffic is mainly highway. It was established on the basis of a high-quality road network during the time when the British ruled over Palestine.
The highways in Israel form a complete network system from the city to the countryside. The road is generally two-lane, and there is a four-lane road along the coast that connects Tel Aviv and Haifa and leads to Jerusalem and Bir Sheba. According to statistics, in the early 1990s, the total length of roads in Israel was more than 13,000 kilometers. Compared with the early 1950s, the length of roads has doubled.
society – education
Israel ranks with Japan as the country with the highest average years of education in Asia and ranks 22nd in the world. According to United Nations data, Israel also has the highest literacy rate in the Middle East.
The Israeli education system can be divided into three stages at the level of secondary education: elementary education (grades 1 to 6), junior high school (grades 7 to 9), then high school (grades 10 to 12), and compulsory education is From grade 1 to grade 11. Secondary education usually includes assistance in preparing for entrance exams for Israeli universities (תעודתבגרות).
The university entrance exam is composed of several subjects, some are mandatory (Hebrew, English, mathematics, Bible education, civics, and literature), and some are optional (such as chemistry, music, French). In 2003, 56.4% of 12th grade Israeli students received university admissions: 57.4% of Hebrew students and 50.7% of Arabic students.
There are eight universities and dozens of colleges in Israel. According to a survey conducted by Webometrics in 2006, 7 of the 10 best universities in the Middle East are located in Israel, of which the top four are Israeli universities. However, as of January 2007,
Webometrics has already placed Israeli (and Turkish) universities in parallel with European universities. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem is the only university in the Middle East that ranks among the top 200 in Webometrics statistics. Israel is also the only country in the Middle East that has a university in the top 100 of the SJTU (the Hebrew University ranks 60th) ). In addition, of all the countries in the Middle East and West Asia, Israel also has the most Yale University alumni.
Around the 1990s, Israel accepted one million Jewish immigrants from all over the world, most of whom were highly educated and high-tech talents full of venture capital spirit. Driven by this wave of technology and talent charging, coupled with a series of market reforms after 2004, Israel’s economy has been making rapid progress.
Today, the world’s top companies, including Intel, IBM, Microsoft, Hewlett-Packard, Yahoo, Google, Sun Microsystems, have R&D centers in Israel. The number of Israeli companies listed on NASDAQ is second only to the United States, with more than 75, including Teva, the world’s most famous pharmaceutical company, and Israel’s largest company, CheckPoint software technology company, a global network security product giant, and the well-known defense contractor Elbit system.
Israel catches up with the global green trend, and gradually concentrates its efforts to make a breakthrough in the field of clean technology. In 2006, the stock god Buffett spent US$4 billion to buy 80% of the Israeli metal manufacturer Iscar, which was Buffett’s first US investment abroad. In 2007, foreign capital injected more than 10 billion U.S. dollars into the Israeli economy.
Affected by the weakening of the US economy, Israel has stepped up its efforts in the Asian and Eastern European technology markets. The economic growth rate in 2008 is estimated to be 3.2%. According to the Central Bank of China, if the government further upgrades the labor force and improves education, the annual growth rate can be at least 4%.
Since the founding of the nation, Israel has been committed to technology research and development in science and engineering. Israeli scientists have made outstanding contributions in genetics, computer science, optics, engineering, and other technological industries. The most well-known Israeli research and development industry is its military science and technology industry, and it is also well-known for research and development in agriculture, physics, and medicine.
A total of ten Israelis and people of Israeli descent have won Nobel Prizes. Including jointly awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Chemistry biologist Aaron Ciechanover and Avram Hershko, shared the crystallographers 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry Ada Yonath, the 2011 Dan Sherman, a materials scientist who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1978; Menachem Begin, a politician who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1978, and Itzhak La, a politician who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1994.
Bin and Shimon Perez; writer Samuel Joseph Agnon, who jointly won the 1966 Nobel Prize in Literature; and Daniel Kahneman, an Israeli-American psychologist who jointly won the 2002 Nobel Prize in Economics, Robert John Auman, an Israeli-American dual citizenship economist who jointly won the 2005 Nobel Prize in
In terms of research and development (R&D) expenditure index, Israel is the third highest country, and in terms of technology preparation (industry spending on R&D, creativity of the scientific research community, personal computer, and network coverage), it ranks eighth. , Is the eleventh in terms of technological innovation, and the sixteenth in terms of total high-tech exports.
The press and publishing industry is relatively developed. The total number of newspapers and magazines issued is about 1,188, of which 36 are daily newspapers, 17 are in Hebrew, and the rest are in Arabic, English, French, etc. The main newspapers are: “ha’aretz”, founded in 1918, a Hebrew daily newspaper; “Evening News” (MA’ARIV), founded in 1948, a Hebrew daily newspaper; “New News” (YEDIOTHAHRONOTH), founded in 1939, a Hebrew daily newspaper; “THEJERUSALEMPOST”, founded in 1932, an English daily newspaper.
News Agency: Jewish News Agency (JTA), based in Jerusalem. The Israeli News Agency (INA), established in 1923, publishes daily texts in Hebrew and is based in Jerusalem. Israel’s Associated News Agency (ITIM), established in 1950, is based in Tel Aviv. Broadcasting station: Israel Broadcasting Bureau, established in 1948, headquartered in Jerusalem, broadcasts the “Voice of Israel” daily in 17 languages including Hebrew, Arabic, English, Yiddish, and Russian. Voice of the Israel Defense Forces, established in 1951, military radio, broadcast in Hebrew.
diplomatic – national policy
As of 2014, Israel has diplomatic relations with 159 countries in the world. Israel has 76 embassies, 19 consulates, and 5 delegations abroad, but there are still several countries that refuse to recognize Israel, mainly Arab countries or countries with anti-American policies.
Since its independence in 1948, Israel has encountered some difficulties in diplomacy. In 1948, Israel’s diplomacy was collectively boycotted by its neighboring countries in the Middle East. In order to resolve this dilemma, Israel began to develop diplomatic relations with countries in the world away from the Middle East.
The Israeli government also pays special attention to diplomatic relations with the United States and has even been able to control the foreign policy of the United States, as well as some newly independent African and Asian countries. Before 1967, Israel maintained diplomatic relations with most countries in the world, except for Arab countries and some Muslim countries. After the Madrid Conference in 1991, due to the signing of the peace agreement, Israel established or resumed formal diplomatic relations with 68 other countries.
Israel has also joined many international organizations and institutions, and is a member of the “Mediterranean Dialogue” (Mediterranean Dialogue) agreement, and maintains a cooperative relationship with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Carry out all-around diplomacy. Maintain traditional friendly relations with Western countries; maintain strategically with the United States; actively develop relations with CIS countries and Eastern European countries; promote the Middle East peace process and strive to achieve reconciliation with Arab countries; expand relations with African and Asian countries.
It established diplomatic relations with the United States on May 14, 1948. The two countries have a special strategic alliance. The United States provides about 3 billion U.S. dollars in military assistance to Israel each year. In October 2002, Bush signed the American Congress’ Diplomatic Authorization Act, recognizing Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. In July 2007, the United States announced that it would provide Israel with US$30 billion in military assistance over the next 10 years.
In 1947, the former Soviet Union voted in favor of the UN General Assembly resolution on the partition of Palestine. After Israel was founded, the Soviet Union established diplomatic relations with Israel. After the “6·Five” war in 1967, the Soviet Union and Israel broke off diplomatic relations. On September 30, 1990, Soviet Foreign Minister Shevardnadze and Foreign Minister Levy met in the United States and announced the restoration of diplomatic relations at the consular level between the Soviet Union and Israel. In the same month, Israel announced the recognition of the independence of the three Baltic countries.
On October 18, Pan Jin, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Soviet Union, visited Israel and formally signed an agreement on the restoration of diplomatic relations between the two countries at the ambassadorial level. In December, Israel announced the recognition of all the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and successively established diplomatic relations with all 15 republics of the Commonwealth of Independent States. There were 185,000 Soviet Jews who immigrated to Israel in 1990, and another 145,000 Soviet Jews immigrated to Israel in 1991. Many of them were resettled in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.
On October 1, 2020, Israeli Foreign Minister Gabi Ashkenazi issued a statement that Israel and Lebanon will start negotiations on the maritime boundary between the two countries. Israel and Lebanon have not established diplomatic relations. Both countries insist that a Mediterranean area of approximately 860 square kilometers should be included in their exclusive economic zone.
January 9, 1950, Israel announced its recognition of the People’s Republic of China, but Taiwan is still in the national government and the presence of the Ambassador of diplomatic relations level. In January 1992, Israeli Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Levy visited China, and the two countries signed a communiqué on the establishment of diplomatic relations. On January 24, 1992, Israel and China formally established diplomatic relations at the ambassadorial level.
On October 18, 2020, Bahrain and Israel signed a joint communiqué, officially establishing comprehensive diplomatic relations.
On the evening of December 12, 2020, the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a statement announcing the establishment of diplomatic relations between Israel and Bhutan.
Israel’s important industry is tourism. Its advantage lies in Israel’s large and precious historical and religious relics, ranging from Judaism, Christianity (including Catholicism, Eastern Orthodox, and other independent sects), Islam, to Baha’i, etc. . In addition, Israel’s warm climate and abundant water resources are also one of the advantages. The tourism industry in Israel includes various historical and religious attractions surrounding the holy land, as well as modern resort beaches, as well as various archeological tours, historic sites tours, and eco-tourism.
30-day tourist visa: Israeli embassies and consulates abroad can issue group visas for groups of 5 to 50 people. At the beginning of the 21st century, you can only apply for a tourist visa in a tour group in China. Travelers in Hong Kong and Macau, China can get free visas on arrival, but Chinese passports cannot apply.
There are many types of accommodation in Israel, ranging from hotels and apartments to collective farm settlements and entertainment villages. The grades and types are very complete. If you come to Israel during the peak tourist season (usually from January to August, depending on the region) or during religious holidays, it is best to book a hotel several months in advance.
For all kinds of religious memorials, Israel is the first choice. Many handicrafts here have strong religious and Israeli Jewish national characteristics, such as various Jewish candlesticks, gems, gold and silver products of various styles, and wood crafts made of olive trees. They are of ornamental value. Practical value and commemorative value.
There are also religious gateposts, holy scrolls, crosses, headdresses, turbans, and key rings that can be used as amulets. Skincare products, shampoos, bath salts, etc. produced in the Dead Sea region have great benefits for nourishing the skin and hair care and are affordable.
Attractions – Wailing wall
It is said that when the Romans occupied Jerusalem, Jews often gathered here to weep, hence the name of the Wailing Wall.
They must cry to express their condolences to the ancient temple and look forward to its restoration. There are separate screens between men and women when praying. Men must wear traditional hats. If there is no hat, paper hats are also available at the entrance. After thousands of years of wind and rain and the touch of pilgrims, the stones of the Wailing Wall glowed like weeping.
Tower of David
The Tower of David is the highest point in the Old City of Jerusalem, located in the Jewish Quarter near the Joppa Gate. This city tower was built by King Herod more than two thousand years ago. The ancient Hamo Wall and the Fassel Tower, Hypicusta, and Mirianita have been excavated one after another. , And architectural remains from the Roman, Byzantine, Crusader, and Turkish eras.
The Tower of David is the palace built by Herod the Great and the fortifications west of Jerusalem. There are three huge towers on the fort. Herod was named after his brother Fasano, his friend Hipku, and his wife Mariani. Mariani was murdered by Herod. In 70 AD, Emperor Titus used this magnificent castle palace as the barracks of the Roman Tenth Army to show the mighty bravery of the Roman army. Below the castle, you can still see the remains of Herod’s time. In the 12th and 14th centuries, the Crusaders and Egyptian Muslims rebuilt the castle separately. The remaining bunker was built by King Suliman of Turkey in 1540.
The Dead Sea is an inland salt lake located in the Jordan Valley between Israel and Jordan. The West Bank is the Jewish mountains, and the East Bank is the Trans-Jordan Plateau. The Jordan River flows from the north. The Jordan River injects 540 million cubic meters of water into the Dead Sea every year. In addition, there are 4 small rivers that have water all year-round from the east. Due to a large amount of evaporation in summer and the injection of water in winter, the level of the Dead Sea has seasonal changes.
Ranging from 30 to 60 cm. The Dead Sea is 80 kilometers long, 18 kilometers wide, with a surface area of about 1,020 square kilometers, an average depth of 300 meters, and the deepest point of 415 meters. The Listing Peninsula in the east of the lake divides the lake into two lakes of different sizes and depths. The northern area occupies three-quarters and the depth is 415 meters. The average depth in the south is less than 3 meters. There is no outlet, and the inflow mainly depends on the Jordan River. The inflow is roughly equal to the evaporation, making it one of the natural water bodies with the highest salinity in the world.
Sea lakes and lakeshores are rich in salt. In this kind of water, fish and other aquatic life are difficult to survive. There are only bacteria and no organisms in the water. There are no flowers and plants growing on the shore and surrounding areas, so people call it the “Dead Sea”.
In the Six-Day War of 1967, Israel conquered the West Bank of Jordan, the Golan Heights in Syria, the Gaza Strip in Egypt (occupied by Egypt at the time), and the Sinai Peninsula. Israel withdrew all its garrisons and colonies from the Sinai Peninsula in 1982, and completely withdrew from the Gaza Strip on September 12, 2005, but the issue of ownership of the West Bank and Gaza Strip remains unresolved. The eastern part of Jerusalem has been under Israeli judicial and administrative jurisdiction since 1967, and the Golan Heights has also been under Israeli jurisdiction since 1981, although they are not official territories of Israel.
The sovereignty of the State of Israel, if all territories captured by Israel in 1967 are excluded, totals 20,777 square kilometers (1% of the water area). If you add the areas under the jurisdiction of Israeli civil law, including eastern Jerusalem and the Golan Heights, it is 22,145 square kilometers, and the water area is less than 1%. The total area controlled by Israel, including the West Bank area under military control and Palestinian government autonomy, is 28,023 square kilometers.
The largest exporter of drones: According to data from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Israel was the largest exporter of drones between 1985 and 2014. During this time, Israel delivered 60.7% of the world’s drones. (Guinness World Records)