The State of Palestine ( Arabic: فلسطين, English: State of Palestine, Palestine), referred to as “Palestine”, is a country in the Middle East consisting of Gaza and the West Bank. The Gaza Strip covers an area of 365 square kilometers, the West Bank of the Jordan River covers an area of 5,800 square kilometers, and the actual controlled territory is 2,500 square kilometers. The population is about 13.5 million, of which 5.1 million are in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank (November 2020), and the rest are refugees and expatriates outside the country.
Palestine is a country established by Arabs living in the Israeli-occupied area of the West Bank of Palestine and the Gaza Strip. It was officially announced on November 15, 1988. It is an observer country of the United Nations and is seeking full membership. In January 2013, Abbas signed an order requesting that the title of “Palestinian National Authority” used in regulations, official documents, certificates, etc. be uniformly changed to “The State of Palestine”
Palestine is dominated by agriculture, with a very low level of the industry, mainly processing industries, such as plastics, rubber, chemicals, food, stone, pharmaceuticals, papermaking, printing, construction, textiles, clothing, and furniture. In 2012, Pakistan’s industrial output value was approximately US$1.4 billion, accounting for approximately 19% of GDP. As of the end of 2013, Pakistan had more than 5,400 industrial enterprises of various kinds and only 25 foreign-funded enterprises.
In 1988, the Palestinian Self-Government declared Jerusalem as the capital of the Palestinian state. In 1980, Israeli legislation recognized Jerusalem as the “eternal and indivisible capital” of the country. Most countries have their embassies in Tel Aviv, and Jerusalem is actually controlled by Israel. On April 14, 2019, the new Palestinian government was sworn in, and Hamas boycotted it.
History Early history
Palestine was called Canaan in ancient times. Around 20 century BC, the Semitic family of Canaanites settled in Palestine and the coastal plain. From 1020 BC to 923 BC, the Jews established the Hebrew Kingdom, and foreign tribes such as Assyria, Babylon, and Persia all occupied Palestine.
The Roman Empire invaded within the 1st century BC, and most of the Jews flowed around the world. In 622 AD, the Arabs defeated the Roman Empire, took over Palestine, and have become a part of the Arab Empire. As Arabs continued to maneuver in and assimilated with the local indigenous peoples, modern Palestinian Arabs gradually formed.
Britain divided Palestine into east and west In 1920, and the Jordan River was the boundary. The east was called Transjordan, and the west still called Palestine the British Mandate. At the end of the 19th century, under the instigation of the “Zionist Movement”, a large number of Jews moved to Palestine and continued bloody clashes with the local Arabs.
The Israeli side supported the resolution and established the State of Israel on May 14, 1948. The Arab countries opposed and rejected the resolution. They were defeated and most occupied of the land in the country specified in the resolution. In addition, Jordan occupied 4,800 square kilometers of land in the West Bank of the Jordan River.; 258 square kilometers of the Gaza Strip is occupied by Egypt. In May 1964, the first Palestinian National Committee meeting in Jerusalem decided to establish the Palestine Liberation Organization.
The 3 rd Middle East war started on June 5, 1967. In this war, Israel occupied the West Bank and Gaza Strip, entire Palestine. In 1969, Arafat served as chairman of the PLO Executive Committee. In September 1978, Egypt, Israel, and the United States signed the Camp David agreement. The Palestinians in the occupied territories gained limited autonomy, while the PLO refused to accept autonomy.
On November 15, 1988, the 19th special meeting of the Palestinian National Committee held in Algiers passed the ” Declaration of Independence “, announcing the establishment of the Palestinian State with the capital as Jerusalem. The declaration made it clear that Pakistan accepted Resolution No. 181 (Partition Resolution) adopted by the General Assembly on November 29, 1947. Pakistan’s border issue is left to be resolved through negotiations in the future. In December 1988, Arafat recognized Israel’s right to survival.
On May 4, 1994, Palestine and Israel signed a historic agreement in Cairo on the implementation of limited autonomy in Gaza and Jericho. On May 12, the Palestinian National Authority was established. On July 12 of the same year, Arafat returned to Gaza after 27 years of exile. The Palestinian-Israeli peace talks did not reach an agreement on difficult issues such as the ownership of Jerusalem, Jewish settlements, the return of Palestine refugees, and the delimitation of the Palestinian-Israeli border. The conflict continues.
According to regulations, to join the United Nations as an independent country, relevant proposals must first be approved by the Security Council and put forward recommendations to the General Assembly, after which it must be approved by two-thirds of the member states of the General Assembly. Based on the current 192 member states of the UN General Assembly, Pakistan needs the support of at least 128 countries to become a full member of the United Nations. In June 2011 Palestine’s Permanent Observer to the United Nations, Mansour, stated that nearly 120 countries have expressed their support for Palestine and Israel to join the United Nations as an independent country.
On October 31, 2011, the UNESCO General Conference voted to pass a proposal for Palestine to join the organization as a member state. This is the first time that Pakistan has been allowed to join the United Nations as a member state, and it also provides a favorable factor for Pakistan to join the United Nations.
On November 29, 2012, in the West Bank city of Ramallah, people took to the streets to celebrate Palestine’s becoming an observer state of the United Nations.
Of The UN General Assembly has was advertised. To Grant Palestine Observer State Status in The United Nations, and Hope that The Security Council Will Actively Consider Palestine ‘S file application for Becoming A Full Member of The United Nations submitted ON September 23 is 2011. The Resolution Also Urges all countries and specialized agencies and organizations of the United Nations system to continue to support and assist the Palestinian people in realizing their right to self-determination, independence, and freedom at an early date. On the same day, President Abbas of the State of Palestine led a delegation to the meeting.
On April 1, 2014, Pakistan restarted the process of applying to join the UN agency and resumed seeking further recognition from the UN. On September 30, 2015, the Palestinian flag was hoisted for the first time at the United Nations Headquarters in New York, USA. On December 13, 2017, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation announced the recognition of East Jerusalem as the capital of the State of Palestine in Istanbul, Turkey.
Natural environment Regional location
Palestine consists of two parts, which in Gaza in Israel’s southwestern, northeastern Egypt, Gaza and 40 km of coastline, an area of 365 square kilometers in Gaza, some of it is Yuedan the West Bank area, located in the eastern part of Israel, The western part of the country of Jordan, covering an area of 5,800 square kilometers. At present, Palestine is composed of the Gaza area and the West Bank. The Gaza area is fully controlled by Hamas, and the West Bank is actually controlled by the Palestinian National Authority. After the Madrid peace meeting, the Pakistani side successively recovered about 2,500 square kilometers of land through peace talks with Israel.
Palestine has a subtropical Mediterranean climate with hot and dry summers. The hottest months are July to August, with temperatures as high as 38°C. The winter is slightly cold, humid, and rainy, with an average temperature of 4-11°C, and the coldest month is January. The rainy season is from December to March of the following year. The average rainfall in the northernmost part is 900 mm, and the southernmost is only about 50 mm.
The main mineral reserves of Palestine include 492 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 184 million barrels of oil, 185 billion tons of coal, 430 million tons of iron,
Palestine is divided into two parts, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. According to the map drawn by the Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation in October 1997, the West Bank is divided into 11 provinces: Jenin, Tulkarem, Tubas, Nablus, Jericho, Jerusalem, and Bethlehem, Karzai, Hebron, Safety, Ramallah-Elbar provinces.
The Gaza Strip is divided into 5 provinces: Northern Province, Gaza, Deir Bayleh, Han Younis, and Rafah.
At present all Palestinian governmental institutions based in the city of Ramallah, Palestinian advocates future capital in Jerusalem (Jerusalem), which is Christianity, Islam, and Judaism are the three religions holy city. In November 1988, the 19th special meeting of the Palestinian National Committee passed the “Declaration of Independence” and declared Jerusalem as the capital of the Palestinian state. The main government departments such as the Presidential Palace of Palestine are all located in Ramallah.
Ramallah is the political, economic, cultural, and commercial center of Palestine and the administrative center of the Palestinian National Authority in the West Bank. The city has the official residence of Arafat, autonomous government branches, and the headquarters of the Pakistani committee (legislature )., Official television and radio, and other important departments. The offices of some countries stationed in the Palestinian National Authority are also located here.
Important city Jerusalem
Jerusalem (English: Jerusalem; Hebrew: Latinization: Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim; Arabic: Latinization: al-Quds, Sinicization: Goodes, or Latinization: Bayt-al-Muqaddas) is located in the Near East A historic city in the Levant region, geographically located in the mountains of Judah, between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
A city in western Palestine (now controlled by Hamas), Gaza City is located in the northeast of Gaza. Gaza City is the administrative center of Gaza. It passes through a gap in the sand dune belt in the Gaza Strip between the Egyptian border and the Mediterranean. Connected with the coast. It is an important maritime gateway in southern Pakistan. It was once a major port in Pakistan, with pottery, food, and textile industries. Hamas has repeatedly clashed with Israel here.
State of Palestine, English The State of Palestine.
The flag of Palestine is rectangular with a ratio of length to width of 2:1. The left side of the flag is a red isosceles triangle, and the right side is black, white, and green horizontal stripes from top to bottom.
There is another saying that red represents the mainland, black represents Africa, white represents the Islamic world in West Asia, and green symbolizes Europe with a flat terrain; red and other three colors are connected to indicate the characteristics and importance of Pakistan’s geographic location.
The Palestinian flag is very similar to the Jordanian flag. The only difference is that the Jordanian flag has a white seven-pointed star on the red triangle. The white seven-pointed star symbolizes the Koran. The above four colors are pan-Arabic.
The Palestinian national emblem is similar to the emblem of the Palestinian National Authority, its government organization, and similar to the national emblems of neighboring Arab countries. It is still an unofficial national emblem. The Saladin eagle, in golden yellow and black, expresses the belief in Islam. It symbolizes victory, bravery, and loyalty. At its center is a white-sided shield with the four colors of red, green, white, and black of the upright Palestinian flag. These are the representative colors of pan-Arabism. Eagle claws grabbed the curved plaque, and the general name of the country was written on the plaque in the Arabic language library, the official language of the State of Palestine: “Palestine” (Arabic: فلسطين, transliterated: Filasīn).
The national anthem adopted by the Palestinian National Authority. According to Article 31 of the 1988 Palestinian Declaration of Independence, the Palestinian National Assembly adopted this national anthem in 1996.
Lyric meaning: My country, my country, my country, my soul, my soul, the soil of my ancestors, my salvation, my salvation, my salvation, my people, the eternal people, rely on me My determination, my fire, and the volcano of resentment, relying on the longing for my soil and my hometown in my blood, I have climbed over the mountains, I have fought a hundred battles, I have conquered the unconquerable,
I have Crossing the front line, relying on the determination of the wind and the flames of weapons, and the determination of our people, in the land of resistance, Palestine is my homeland, Palestine is my fire, Palestine is my resentment and the place of my resistance, under my banner Oath, with my native people, and the fire of pain, I will live by redemption, I will always be a redeemer, and I will exhaust my redemption-until my country returns, my redemption.
In 2015, Palestine had a population of 5.1 million, of which 2.2 million were in Gaza, 2.9 million in the West Bank, and more than 350,000 Jews in the West Bank lived in Jewish settlements in the West Bank. The main ethnic groups in Palestine are Jews and Arabs. As of July 2017, there were approximately 12.7 million people, of which 4.88 million were in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, and the rest were refugees and expatriates outside the country. General Arabic, mainly believes in Islam.
As of November 2020, the population of Palestine is approximately 13.5 million, of which 5.1 million are in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, and the rest are refugees and expatriates outside the country.
One of the leaders of the PLO and the first chairman of the PLO. A legendary Palestine son who has been the king of children since he was a child, he has personally experienced the baptism of four wars in the Middle East and devoted his life to the cause of restoring the national rights of the Palestinian people. In life, his love story with three women is also widely circulated. On November 11, 2004, Arafat passed away.
From the King of Children to the Chairman of the PLO: When he was a child, Arafat often imitated the actions of soldiers and made some military-colored children’s games. In 1959, when he was only 30 years old, he and his comrades founded ” Fatah ” and “Storm Force”. The first shot in the struggle against Israeli aggression was fired in 1965, and he became chairman of the PLO in 1968.
Sheikh Ahmed Yassin (Arabic: أحمد يس, Sheikh Ahmed Ismail Yassin, 1937-March 22, 2004), the spirit of the radical Islamic fundamentalist organization “Hamas” (Islamic Resistance Movement) Leader and founder, founded the Islamic organization Hamas in 1987. A sports accident in his youth caused Yassin to be quadriplegic. He has been living in a wheelchair since then, and his eyesight is almost blind. He was killed by an Israeli helicopter missile attack on March 22, 2004. His leadership position in Hamas was succeeded by the former Hamas spokesperson and Hamas hardliner Lantis.
Yassin was paralyzed in bed when he was sent to prison again. In September 1997, the government suddenly announced the release of Yassin on the grounds that Yassin’s health condition had deteriorated significantly. Yassin was released on October 1 of the same year. The eight-year prison life worsened Yassin’s physical condition and severely damaged his eyesight and hearing. After being released from prison, Yassin still led Hamas in the fight against Israel and insisted that armed resistance was the only correct choice to end the Israeli occupation.
Abdul Aziz Rantisi (October 23, 1947-April 18, 2004), Rantisi and Sheikh Ahmed after the outbreak of the anti-Israeli uprising in the Occupied Palestinian Territory in 1987 A total of seven people including Yassin jointly created the “Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas)” and quickly developed it into one of the most influential Islamic radical organizations in the occupied territories. Rantisi was arrested many times for his active participation in anti-Israel operations. Since then, he has been in jail for 7 years. In 1992, Rantisi and more than 400 other Palestinian resistance elements were deported to southern Lebanon.
As the spokesperson of these people, Rantisi became known to the international community. A year later, Rantisi returned to Gaza, became the main spokesperson of Hamas, and was considered the second person behind Yassin. Rantisi belongs to the radicals within Hamas and advocates the establishment of an Islamic Middle East without a Jewish state. After the Israeli military assassinated Yassin, Rantisi took over as the leader of Hamas in the Gaza Strip on the evening of March 23, 2004. He was assassinated by Israeli missiles on April 18 of the same year.
Mohamed Zahar graduated from Shams University with a bachelor’s degree in medicine. After completing his studies, he returned to Gaza to become a doctor. He joined Hamas in 1987, and soon became a Hamas spokesperson, and later entered the Hamas Politburo. Zahar was once the personal doctor of Hamas spiritual leader Yassin. In 1992, he was deported by Israel to southern Lebanon. After Hamas leaders Yassin and Lantisi were eliminated by Israel in 2004, Zahar became Hamas’s real power in Palestine.
Ismail Haniya (English: Ismail Haniya, Arabic: إسماعيل هنية), one of the political leaders of Hamas, was appointed as Palestine by the Chairman of the Palestinian Authority Mahmoud Abbas on February 21, 2006, Prime Minister of the National Coalition Government.
The Palestine National Council (“Palestinian National Council”) is the highest authority of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), representing all Palestinians inside and outside Palestine. There are 669 members who were Palestinian resistance groups and representatives of other mass organizations, the current Chairman Salim Zanoun (Saleem Al-Zanon)
Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization (The Executive Committee of PLO, referred to as “PLO Executive Committee”) is the PLO permanent governing body of the organization. The current executive committee was elected at the 21st meeting of the Palestinian National Committee in April 1996. Since 1969, the chairman of the PLO Executive Committee has been Arafat. After Arafat’s death in November 2004, Abbas succeeded as chairman. In August 2015, Abbas announced his resignation as chairman of the PLO Executive Committee. Before the election, Abbas still acted as chairman.
The Central Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization (Central Committee of PLO) is a supervisory body between the Palestine National Committee and the PLO Executive Committee. It is responsible for supervising the implementation of the PLO’s resolutions and policies PLO. It is elected by the Palestine National Committee and has more than 100 members. When the National Committee is not in session, the Central Committee will guide the PLO work. Since 1970, Arafat has been chairman. After Arafat’s death, Abbas succeeded as chairman.
In May 1994 the PLO was established in accordance with the resolution of the Palestinian National Authority (Palestine National Authority), as a stage, a transitional authority. In June 2007, after the Hamas and Fatah conflict, the President of the Palestinian National Authority Mahmoud Abbas appointed former Finance Minister Salam Fayyad (Salam Fayyad) formation of a transitional government. In May 2012, the transitional government reorganized for the third time.
In January 2013, Abbas signed an order requesting that the title of “Palestinian National Authority” used in regulations, official documents, and certificates should be unified to “ State of Palestine ”. In April, Fayez resigned. In June, Abbas appointed Rami Hamm Dara (Rami Hamdallah) as the new interim prime minister, but Hamm Dara soon resign. In September, Abbas re-appointed Hamdallah as prime minister.
After the establishment of the Pakistani National Consensus Government in June 2014, Hamdala stayed in office. In July 2015, Hamdallah reorganized the cabinet slightly.
On June 2, 2014, the Palestinian coalition government was sworn in at the Ramallah Presidential Palace, marking the end of the seven-year split between the two major political factions Fatah and Hamas.
Palestinian President: Mahmoud Abbas (Mahmoud Abbas). Born in Safed, northern Palestine in 1935, he received a doctorate in history from Moscow University. Since 1959, he has assisted Arafat in preparing for the establishment of the mainstream PLO “Fatah”. In the early 1990s, he attended the Madrid Middle East Peace Conference as the chief negotiator of Pakistan, presided over the Palestinian-Israeli Oslo negotiations, and signed the “Oslo Agreement” on behalf of Pakistan. In 1995, he was elected as the general secretary of the PLO Executive Committee.
From April to September 2003, he served as the first prime minister of the Palestinian self-government government. After Arafat’s death in November 2004, he succeeded as Chairman of the PLO Executive Committee. In January 2005, he was elected chairman of the Palestinian National Authority. In November 2006, the Fatah Revolutionary Committee elected Abbas as its supreme leader. In November 2008,
The PLO Central Committee elected Abbas as the President of the State of Palestine. In August 2009, he was elected Chairman of the Fatah Central Committee. He is married and has three children
Palestinian Prime Minister : Rami Hamm Dara (Rami Hamdallah). Born in 1958, he received a doctorate degree in the UK and is currently the president of Najah University in Palestine. Since 2002, Hamdallah has served as the Secretary-General of the Central Election Commission of Pakistan and a member of the Pakistan Constitution Drafting Committee. He was appointed Prime Minister of Palestine on June 6, 2013. Resigned on June 23 of the same year. On June 2, 2014, Rami Hamdala became prime minister again and formed a coalition government.
On June 17, 2015, Hamdallah submitted his government resignation to President Abbas. Abbas accepted his resignation, but then appointed Rami Hamdallah to form a new government. On January 29, 2019, Rami Al-Hamdallah (Rami Al-Hamdallah) has submitted his resignation to the Palestinian President and Fatah leader Abbas. However, the current government will continue to perform its duties until the new government completes the formation of a cabinet.
Palestinian Foreign Minister: Ziad Abu Amour. Born in Gaza in 1950. He graduated from Damascus University with a bachelor’s degree in English literature and language, and a master’s degree and a doctorate degree in comparative politics from Georgetown University. He has served as a member of the Palestine Political Research Center in Washington, a member of the Palestine Research Center in Nablus,
The chairman of the Palestinian Foreign Affairs Committee, the deputy secretary-general of the Palestinian Human Rights Organization Miftah, and a member of the PLO Central Committee. In 1985, he was a professor of political science, cultural science, and international education program at Birzait University in Ramallah, and taught in Bahrain, Oman, and Syria. In 1996, he was elected as a member of the Legislative Council as an independent member of the Gaza region and served as the Chairman of the Political Committee of the Legislative Council.
In 2003, he was appointed Minister of Culture of the 9th Government of Barbados. In January 2006, he was re-elected as a member of the Legislative Council. On March 17, 2007, he served as Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Palestinian National Coalition Government (the 11th government). He is married and has four children.
Chairman of the Palestinian Legislative Council: Aziz Salim Duwick. Born in Hebron in 1948. He received a master’s degree in education from Naghara University in Palestine, a master’s degree in urban planning and regional planning from Cairo University in Egypt, and a doctorate in regional architectural planning from the University of Pennsylvania. In 1980, he taught in the Geology Department of Najah University and served as the head of external relations of the Palestine Doctor and Master Association.
He was arrested and imprisoned by Israel many times for participating in “Hamas”. At the end of 1992, he was deported to southern Lebanon. In 1994, he returned to Najah University as the dean of the Department of Geology, a member of the Scientific Research Committee, and the chairman of the Higher Education Committee of the “Hamas” charity. In January 2006, he was elected as a member of the Pakistani Legislative Committee. In February, he was elected chairman of the Legislative Council. He has published many books, among which “Palestinian Society” is the most famous. He has three sons and four daughters.
Chairman of the Palestinian National Council: Salim Zanon. Born in Gaza in 1933. From 1956 to early 1957, he led the people of Gaza in the struggle against British, French, and Israeli aggression. In 1969, he was elected as the vice-chairman of the Pakistan National Committee. From 1975 to 1990, he served as the representative of “Fatah” in Kuwait and the Gulf region. Member of the “Fatah” Central Committee, was elected chairman of the Pakistan National Committee in 1996 until now.
The Palestinian Legislative Council (ThePalestinianLegislativeCouncil), which was elected on January 20, 1996, in accordance with the ” Oslo Agreement “, mainly exercises parliamentary functions.
The Legislative Council has 11 committees under the Law, Jerusalem, Budget and Financial Affairs, Economy, Natural Resources, Territory and Settlement, Refugees, Interior and Security, Education, Politics, and Supervision, and holds two annual meetings each year.
According to regulations, the term of office of each legislative committee is 4 years. However, due to constant conflicts between Palestine and Israel since 2000, the re-election has not been carried out.
In January 2006, Pakistan held the second legislative committee election. Hamas won 74 seats and became the largest party in the Legislative Council. The current chairman of the Pakistani Legislative Council is Aziz Diavik (a member of Hamas).
The main body of Pakistan’s judicial institutions is courts at all levels. There are one Supreme Court, 18 Mediation Courts, 8 Primary Courts, 1 Appeal Court, 1 Criminal Court, and 2 Central Courts in Pakistan.
The main body of Pakistani procuratorial institutions is the procuratorate at all levels. The responsibility of the procuratorate is to decide and conduct various prosecutions, to represent the enforcement agencies in confronting judicial organs, to supervise judicial discipline and prisons. Pakistan has one Supreme Procuratorate, which is composed of the chief prosecutor, several deputy chief prosecutors, and prosecutors. There are 5 prosecution branches and 10 general prosecution offices. There are more than 1,000 full-time and part-time lawyers in Pakistan.
(1) Palestinian National Liberation Movement (Palestinian National Liberation Movement): referred to as ” Fatah “. In the late 1950s, it was gradually formed by Palestinian patriotic youths. After 1969, it became the mainstream of the PLO and was widely recognized and supported by Arab countries.
The permanent leadership of “Fatah” is the Central Committee, under which there are revolutionary committees, all elected by the “Fatah” congress. After Arafat’s death, Farouk Al-Kaddoumi succeeded as Chairman of the Central Committee. In November 2006, the Fatah Revolutionary Committee elected Abbas as its supreme leader. In August 2009, Fatah held the Sixth Congress and elected a new Central Committee and Revolutionary Committee. Abbas was elected Chairman of the Central Committee.
(2) Palestinian Islamic Resistance Movement (Islamic Resistance Movement): abbreviated as ” Hamas ” (Hamas), consisting of three Arabic abbreviations of “Islam”, “resistance” and “movement”. It was founded by Yassin in 1987. Hamas declares that the Koran is the constitution and emphasizes that “jihad” is the only means to achieve its goals; it strongly opposes the Middle East peace process and advocates the elimination of Israel and the liberation of all occupied Palestinian territories.
The Battle of Gaza took place from June 12 to June 14, 2007. This war was a conflict between Fatah and Hamas. As a result, Palestine has split into two regimes-Hamas control Gaza. The zone and Fatak control the West Bank, and Hamas has adjusted its position. As of 2014, Hamas actually controls the Gaza Strip. It is Political Bureau Chairman Khaled Meshaal’s (Khaled Mashal) long-term exile.
(3) PFLP (Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine ): the “Popular Front” (Popular Front). In December 1967, it was formed by the merger of the Palestine Liberation Front, “Vengeful Youth”, “Returned Heroes” and other organizations. It is the second-largest organization in the PLO. Political views are on the left and oppose the “Oslo Agreement” between Palestine and Israel. . The current general secretary is Ahmed Sa’adat (Ahmed Sa’adat).
(4) Islamic Jihad (Islamic Jihad): referred to as “Jihad” (Jihad). It was developed by the radicals of the Muslim Brotherhood in the late 1980s, with the aim of ending Israel’s occupation of Palestinian territories through jihad. The goal is to liberate Palestine and establish an independent Palestinian state. General Secretary Ramadan Abdullah Shalah (Ramadan Abdullah Shalah).
(5) Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine): referred to as “Democratic Front”. Split from the “People’s Front” in 1969, it is the third-largest organization in the PLO. Political views are on the left and oppose the “Oslo Agreement” between Palestine and Israel. The current general secretary is Nayef Hawatmeh (Nayef Hawatmeh).
(6) Palestine Liberation Front: referred to as “PLO”. It was separated from the People’s Front (Headquarters) in 1976 and was formally established in April 1977. In 1983, it was divided into two factions. In 2003, the party’s general secretary Mohammed Abbas (Mohammed Abbas) was captured by the US military in the Iraq War. In early 2004, Ah died in a US prisoner of war camp. The current general secretary is Wasel Abu-Yousef (Wasel Abu-Yousef).
Mainly agriculture, others include construction, processing, handicraft, commerce, and service industries. The Palestinian economy is heavily dependent on Israel, and the continued Palestinian-Israeli conflict has severely restricted the economic development of Palestine. The World Bank report at the end of 2010 believes that the Palestinian economy has reached the level of establishing an independent state. In 2012, due to the failure of external financial assistance in time and Israel’s continued blockade of Palestine, Palestine experienced serious financial difficulties.
According to the information provided by the Pakistani Ministry of Industry: There are 4,000 industrial enterprises in Pakistan. Pakistan’s industry is mainly processing industries, such as tanning, plastics, rubber, chemicals, food, stone, marble and artificial slate, pharmaceuticals, paper, printing, construction, textiles, clothing, and furniture.
Palestine is rich in agricultural products, and agriculture is the backbone of the Palestinian economy. Fruits, vegetables, and olives (oil) are an important part of foreign trade exports, accounting for 25% of exports. The arable land area is 166,000 hectares. The labor force engaged in agriculture accounts for about 20% of the total labor force. In 2012, the total output value of Pakistan’s agriculture reached 330 million US dollars, accounting for 5% of GDP.
Pakistan and pleasant climate, a large number of historical and cultural monuments, known as the Holy Land ( Holyland ) rich tourism resources. There are 74 travel agencies, 69 restaurants, 106 hotels, 4708 guest rooms, and 10063 beds in Pakistan. The main tourist cities are Jerusalem, Ramallah, Birla, Bethlehem, Jericho, Nablus, Hebron, Gaza.
The Palestinian Financial Institution (PALESTINEMONETARYAUTHORITY) was established at the end of 1994. As a preparatory institution of the Central Bank of Pakistan, this institution plays a leading role in determining financial policies, regulating and supervising the activities of various banks. According to the information provided by Pakistani financial institutions, there are 22 banks in the areas controlled by the Pakistani National Authority. There are 9 Palestinian banks, 11 Arab banks, and 2 other foreign banks. Pakistan still does not have its own currency, using Israeli currency (shekel) and Jordanian currency (dinar).
International aid is one of the main sources of income of the Palestinian National Authority. From 2008 to 2010, the Palestinian National Authority received annual financial assistance of 1.8 billion, 1.4 billion, and 1.2 billion US dollars, respectively, with the United States and the European Union being the largest donors. In 2011, as Pakistan sought to join the United Nations, the United States froze part of its aid to Palestine. Palestine received only US$983 million in aid throughout the year, and the financial gap was huge. In 2012, the “quartet mechanism” on the Middle East called on the international community to provide $1.1 billion in financial assistance to Palestine.
On February 12, 2015, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs announced in the West Bank city of Ramallah that it plans to provide Palestine with US$705 million in aid in 2015. 80% of this aid will be used for the reconstruction of the Gaza Strip. [twenty-three]
culture – Language
The official language of Palestine is Arabic.
Palestine is a multi-religious country, mainly Islam, Judaism, Catholicism, Eastern Orthodox, and Protestantism in the country.
National Foundation Day: November 15
Independence Day: August 14 (1947)
National Day: March 23
Martyrs’ Day: January 7, to mourn the thousands of martyrs who died on the battlefield for the freedom, independence, and honor of Palestine.
Disaster Day: May 15 (May 14, 1948, Israel announced the establishment of a state. The next day, the first Middle East war broke out, a large number of Palestinians fled from Israel to other countries to escape the war. Later, Palestine will be on May 15 Day is the national “disaster day” to commemorate the war and national doom of the year.
Ba was under the rule of the Ottoman Empire at the beginning of the 16th century. In the second half of the 19th century, the Pakistani people began to resist Ottoman rule, and literature also began to revive. After the First World War, Pakistan was reduced to a British mandate. Since then, many major events have occurred in Pakistan, and social life is full of contradictions and struggles, which are reflected in literature.
Heller Beds (1875～1949)’s novel “Heir” (1920), a collection of short stories “The Stage of Thought” (1924), and a collection of short stories by Saifuddin Irani “The First Journey”, “From the Crowd”, Nejati Suideji’s collection of short stories “Sorrowful Sisters”, Moussa Husseini’s novel “The Memories of a Hen” (1943), etc., which describe people from all walks of life Life expresses dissatisfaction with colonialists and is innovative in form
. Poets Abdul Kerim Karmi (Abu Salma) (1917～1980), Ibrahim Tugan (1905～1941), and Abdu Rahim Mehamud His poems have a strong breath of life, adding fresh artistic features to traditional Arabic poetry. After May 1948, a large number of Palestinian refugees fled their homes. From then on, Ba literature was divided into occupied area literature and exile area literature.
Literary masterpieces of the occupied areas: the long poem “The Lover of Palestine” by Mehamud Darwish (1941～), Taufig Ziad (1936～) in “Never”, Semikha Qasim (1939) ~) “Song of the Road” (1964 ) and so on.
Masterpieces of exile literature: Abdul Kerim Karmi (Abu Selma)’s “Exiles” (1953), “Ode to the Motherland” (1959), Gesang Kanafani’s Novella The novel “People under the Sun” (1963), and the short story “The Question of Little Mohammed” by Mahamud Rimawi, etc.
During the New Year, the women carried the pink powder with them to go out. They first said joy when they met their relatives and friends, and then applied the pink powder on the forehead of the other party, in order to raise their heads to see the joy and to benefit from it.
Ba people are very warm and friendly. They usually have the habit of sending wreaths when they are invited to participate in banquets during New Year’s holidays. [twenty-four]
The vast majority of Ba people believe in Islam and are an Islamic country. They mainly serve pilaf or flatbread with curry mutton and chicken. Ba people like to eat spicy food, and their curry foods made with pepper and turmeric are world-renowned. Ba dishes, whether it is meat, fish, beans, or vegetables, are mostly spicy, and kimchi is also spicy. They don’t have the habit of cooking, whether it’s beef, lamb, fish or all kinds of beans or vegetables, they are all cooked well.
Pakistan is an Islamic country, where more than 95% of the residents believe in Islam. As the religious law stipulates that drinking is a crime, believers are not allowed to drink but can drink tea. As in China, “Guests to Respect Tea” is also a courtesy for Pakistani people to receive guests. When visiting a Ba people’s home, the host immediately prepares black tea for the reception, and often also serves snacks such as sandwich biscuits and cakes at the same time
According to the relevant agreement reached between Palestine and Israel, Palestine does not yet have an army, and its military forces are mainly two police forces, one to maintain security in Palestine, and the other to perform military functions on the border, a total of 16,000 people. There is no artillery, but some armored personnel carriers. Only a few aircraft are used for leaders’ visits and rescue.
There are no railways within the jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority. All transportation is done by roads and cars. There are 5146.9 kilometers of various highways. After 2000, due to the outbreak of conflict between Palestine and Israel, the transportation construction of Palestine came to a standstill. After 2009, roads and other infrastructure construction have been restored and developed to some extent.
Pakistan established a civil aviation agency in 1996, and Gaza International Airport was put into use in October 1998, and routes to Egypt and Jordan were opened. After the conflict broke out between Palestine and Israel in 2000, the runway of the Gaza airport was destroyed by the Israeli army. Palestine Airlines is owned by the Palestinian National Authority, headquartered in Arish, Egypt, and currently has two regional airliners.  Gaza International Airport is the only airport in Pakistan, capable of taking off and landing large Boeing 747 aircraft, with an annual design capacity of 700,000 passengers.
Pakistan’s education status is generally backward, with a Pakistani illiteracy rate of 9.1. The education system is 6 years for elementary school, 3 years for middle school, 3 years for high school, and 4-5 years for university. From 1999 to 2000, Pakistan had 1,767 schools with 865,540 students. There are 34088 teachers. There are 8 major universities including Najah University (or “Success University”), Birzeit University, Al-Quds University, and Bethlehem University. From 1999 to 2000, there were 19,548 students enrolled in universities and 1,869 faculty members in each university.
Pakistan has been in a state of conflict for a long time, its medical facilities are relatively outdated, and the supply of medicines is insufficient. Tourists to Pakistan need to bring their own commonly used medicines. Nuem asked Israel, the United States and Europe to be held accountable. At the same time, relevant international agencies and humanitarian organizations are requested to provide medical equipment and medical services to the Palestinian people.
Pakistan Mainland 13 kinds of newspapers and periodicals have 33 magazines, most of which are monthly and quarterly. The main newspapers and periodicals are Al-Quds, Al-Ayyam, Al-Hayat Al-Jadida, etc.
The official news agency is ” WAFA ” (PALESTINENEWSAGENCY) referred to as “WAFA”. The club was founded by the PLO in Beirut in 1971
There are 11 radio stations in Palestine. The “Voice of Palestine” is the official radio station, founded in 1964, and the remaining 10 are commercial radio stations. ” In September 1995 Palestinian Television ” was founded. It is the only official television station in Palestine. It has only two channels. One is a satellite channel, which broadcasts 12 hours a day, covering the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Both “Voice of Palestine” and “Palestinian Television” are subordinate to the “Palestinian Broadcasting Corporation”
In 1928, the Palestinian Football Association was formally established and officially joined FIFA in the second year of its establishment. The 1934 World Cup qualifiers became the first Asian team in history to appear in the World Cup qualifiers. From 1930 to 1940, more new players and clubs emerged. In Palestine, friendly matches and tournaments can be seen everywhere.
After Israel fully occupied the Palestinian territories in 1967, football remained silent until 1973. On December 31, 2014, the AFC officially announced the 23-man roster for the Palestinian team in the Asian Cup. The Palestinian team who entered the Asian Cup for the first time in history had 6 returnees.
Law and order
The public security situation in Pakistan is relatively poor. According to the Palestinian-Israeli agreement, the Palestinian National Authority has a police force to maintain internal security. However, conflicts and exchanges of fire between Palestinians and Israeli forces still occur from time to time.
. Israel stipulates that, except for diplomats, all personnel entering Palestine-controlled areas must undergo strict inspections and sign the “Disclaimer”. The main contents include: ensuring that military operations will not be hindered and that they will not go to dangerous areas and military affairs. Forbidden area, otherwise you will bear all the consequences caused by not complying with the above clauses.
According to the Palestine, Autonomy Agreement reached between Palestine and Israel, the Palestinian National Authority is mainly responsible for managing all civil affairs in the Palestinian Autonomous Region except diplomacy and security.
The average Engel coefficient of the Palestinian population is 36.6%. The living standards of Palestinians are basically distributed normally, and the annual living consumption of households with Engel coefficient greater than 45% is generally below US$4752, which is basically consistent with the status of the poor population announced by the Palestinian Self-Government (17.8%), that is to say In Palestine, the population with Engel coefficient greater than 45% is poor. In the same period, the Engel coefficient of the urban population in China was 39.2%, and the average Engel coefficient of the rural population was 49.1%
diplomatic Foreign policy
After the establishment of the PLO, it has received extensive support from Arab countries and many countries in the world.
The resolution of the Seventh Arab League Summit held in Rabat in October 1974 recognized PLO as the sole legal representative of the Palestinian people. In November of the same year, the PLO participated in the meetings and work of the UN General Assembly as an observer.
In August 1976, the Fifth Conference of Non-Aligned Countries accepted the PLO as a full member, and the Arab League accepted it as a full member in September of the same year.
The State of Palestine was proclaimed on November 15, 1988, and has now been officially recognized by 137 countries. The PLO used to have offices in more than 90 countries, but most of them have now been changed to embassies of the State of Palestine.
On December 15, 1988, Palestine officially became an observer of the United Nations.
In September 2011, Palestine applied to become a full member of the United Nations. In October, Palestine became a full member of UNESCO.
On November 29, 2012, the 67th UN General Assembly passed a resolution granting Palestine the status of an observer state to the United Nations.
Relations with China
In May 1965, the PLO established an office in Beijing that enjoyed the status of a diplomatic institution.
On November 20, 1988, China announced its recognition of the Palestinian State and the two countries established diplomatic relations. On December 31 of the same year, the PLO Beijing Office was changed to the Embassy of the State of Palestine in China.
From July 5, 1990, the Chinese Ambassador to Tunisia also served as the Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the State of Palestine.
After Pakistan implemented its autonomy, China established an office of the National Authority in Pakistan in Gaza in December 1995 and moved to Ramallah in May 2004.
In May 2005, Mahmoud Abbas, chairman of the Palestinian National Authority, paid a state visit to China. In June, Foreign Minister Li Zhaoxing visited Palestine. . In December, Qiao Zonghuai, a leading member of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, visited Palestine.
In May 2006, Pakistani Foreign Minister Zahar came to China to attend the ministerial meeting of the China-Arab Friendship and Cooperation Forum. In December, Assistant Foreign Minister Zhai Jun visited Pakistan. Director of the Office of China in the Palestinian National Authority: Yang Weiguo, Ambassador of the State of Palestine to China: HEDiab Nemer Mohammed Allouh (HEDiab Nemer Mohammed Allouh).
On September 21, 2016, at the invitation of the Palestinian government, Chairman Zhang Dejiang of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress paid an official goodwill visit to Palestine, attended the welcoming ceremony held by Palestinian Prime Minister Hamdallah, and held talks with Hamdallah.
Zhang Dejiang reiterated China’s position on the Palestine issue, saying that China will continue to support the Palestinian people’s just cause of restoring their national legal rights and support Palestine to join more international organizations. Thank you for Pakistan’s public statement not long ago supporting China’s position on the South China Sea issue
Relations with Arab countries
(1) Relations with Egypt. Egypt is one of the first Arab countries to support the PLO, and it was once the main base for the PLO to carry out political activities. After Egypt and Israel signed the Camp David agreement, the PLO broke off relations with Egypt.
In November 1987, Egypt announced the reopening of the PLO office in Cairo. After the Gulf War, the relationship was cold due to the different positions of the two sides. Since then, with the progress of the Middle East peace process, the relationship between the two sides has been normalized. After being elected as the chairman of the Palestinian National Authority, Abbas has visited Egypt many times. In recent years,
Egypt has actively mediated on issues such as the ceasefire between Palestine and Israel, the exchange of prisoners, and the internal reconciliation of Palestine
In 2011, through Egypt’s mediation, the Palestinian factions signed a settlement agreement in Cairo in early May. In October, the Egyptian side facilitated the successful exchange of prisoners between Hamas and Israel. After the outbreak of the conflict in Gaza in November 2012, Egypt clearly supported Palestine, and at the same time actively carried out mediation to promote the realization of a ceasefire.
In January 2013, under the mediation of Egypt, the leaders of Fatah and Hamas met in Cairo on matters of national reconciliation. After the drastic changes in the situation in Egypt at the end of July, relations between Egypt and Hamas deteriorated sharply. The Egyptian military strengthened its control over the border between the Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip, shortened the opening time of the Rafah port, and destroyed most of the tunnels from Gaza to Sinai.
In March 2014, the Egyptian side decided to ban all Hamas activities in Egypt, which Hamas condemned.
In early 2015, the Ethiopian court ruled that Hamas was a terrorist organization. In June, the Egyptian Court of Appeal for Emergency Services revoked its previous ruling that Hamas was listed as a terrorist organization, citing a lack of judicial power.
(2) Relations with Syria. Syria was an important base and rear of the Pakistani guerrillas. Some important organizations in Pakistan are headquartered in Damascus. Hamas leader Marshal also settled in Syria. After 1983, the relationship between the two sides deteriorated due to differences in political views on resolving the Middle East issue. After 1988, relations between Pakistan and Syria have eased.
In 1999, with Syria’s encouragement and support, the Palestinian opposition organizations in Syria began a dialogue with the Palestinian National Authority. In December 2004, Abbas visited Syria after taking over as the chairman of the PLO Executive Committee. After Hamas came to power in 2006, Syria expressed support for the government chosen by the Palestinian people, opposed the blockade of Palestine, and encouraged Palestinian political factions to resolve their differences through dialogue In November 2007, Syria attends the Annapolis peace conference. In July and October 2008, Abbas visited Syria. After the turmoil in Syria in 2011, the leadership of Hamas left Syria and publicly asked Syrian President Bashar to step down.
(3) Relations with Jordan. Pakistan and Jordan have a special relationship in terms of history, geography, and blood relationship. Jordan is the only country in the Arab world that grants Palestinian citizenship, and Palestinians now account for 60% of Jordan’s total population. Yoo was once the headquarters of the PLO.
In 1970, the relations between Yorba and Palestine deteriorated, and the Palestinian armed forces were forced to withdraw from Yorba. After the beginning of the Middle East peace process, Bayeux formed a joint delegation to attend the Middle East Peace Conference.
In June 2003, King Abdullah II of Jordan presided over the Aqaba Summit attended by the three leaders of the United States, Israel, and Palestine and announced the official launch of the “Roadmap” plan for Middle East peace. After being elected as the chairman of the Palestinian National Authority, Abbas visited the treaty many times. After Abbas disbanded the coalition government, Jordan emphasized that Palestine should maintain internal unity and rebuild order. King Abdullah II has repeatedly called on the international community to promote the peace process, support Palestine-Israel peace talks, and urge the United States to play an important role in the Middle East issue.
At the beginning of 2012, the “quartet mechanism” between Jordan and the Middle East promoted Palestine and Israel to have multiple contacts in Amman on the resumption of peace talks.
(4) Relations with Saudi Arabia and other Gulf Arab countries. Gulf Arab countries such as Saudi Arabia and Kuwait were once the main financial aid countries of the PLO. In 1990, Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries were dissatisfied with the PLO’s position in the Gulf War, and relations with the PLO deteriorated. Most of the 500,000 Palestinians who were in the Gulf countries left. On March 31, 1991, the Gulf Cooperation Council announced the suspension of financial assistance to the PLO.
However, after Palestine settled to attend the Madrid Middle East Peace Conference, relations between Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries and Palestine began to ease, official exchanges gradually resumed, and Saudi Arabia also partially resumed aid to Palestine. Since 1993, relations between the PLO and the Gulf countries have continued to improve.
On April 25, 2002, during his visit to the United States, the then Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia Abdullah proposed to President Bush eight points to resolve the Middle East issue. In December 2004, Abbas, Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Executive Committee visited Saudi Arabia and Kuwait and apologized for Pakistan’s wrong position in the Gulf War. Relations between Pakistan and the Gulf countries have improved significantly.
At the beginning of 2012, the “quartet mechanism” between Jordan and the Middle East promoted Palestine and Israel to have multiple contacts in Amman on the resumption of peace talks.
(4) Relations with Saudi Arabia and other Gulf Arab countries. Gulf Arab countries such as Saudi Arabia and Kuwait were once the main financial aid countries of the PLO. In 1990, Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries were dissatisfied with the PLO’s position in the Gulf War, and relations with the PLO deteriorated. Most of the 500,000 Palestinians who were in the Gulf countries left.
On March 31, 1991, the Gulf Cooperation Council announced the suspension of financial assistance to the PLO. However, after Palestine settled to attend the Madrid Middle East Peace Conference, relations between Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries and Palestine began to ease, official exchanges gradually resumed, and Saudi Arabia also partially resumed aid to Palestine. Since 1993, relations between the PLO and the Gulf countries have continued to improve.
On April 25, 2002, during his visit to the United States, the then Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia Abdullah proposed to President Bush eight points to resolve the Middle East issue. In December 2004, Abbas, Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Executive Committee, visited Saudi Arabia and Kuwait and apologized for Pakistan’s wrong position in the Gulf War. Relations between Pakistan and the Gulf countries have improved significantly.
Relations with Israel
Palestine and Israel successively signed the “Declaration of Principles of Provisional Self-Government Arrangements” (the “Oslo Agreement”), the ” Gaza and Jericho Advance Autonomy Agreement”, and the “Agreement on Expanding the Scope of Palestine’s Autonomy in the West Bank” from 1993 to 1995. in January 1997, Palestine and Israel Signed AN Agreement ON The redeployment of Israeli troops in Hebron, stipulating that They Would the withdraw from 80% of Hebron.
in October 1998, Palestine and Israel Signed The SECOND Phase of Israel’s troop’s withdrawal from the West Bank, the ” Wye Agreement .” On November 8, 1999, Palestine and Israel officially launched final status negotiations. In July 2000, the Camp David summit of the leaders of the United States, Israel, and Pakistan ended in vaIn September 2000, Sharon, the leader of the Elikud group, forcibly entered the Al-Aqsa Mosque, triggering more than four years of Israeli-Palestinian conflict. After Abbas became the top leader of Palestine in 2005, Palestine-Israel relations have improved significantly.
In February, the leaders of Israel, Palestine, Egypt, and Jordan held a summit in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt. In September, with the promotion of Egypt and other parties and the active cooperation of Palestine, the “Secession Plan” for the withdrawal of Jewish settlements and troops from Gaza and parts of the West Bank was completed. In November, under the mediation of the United States, Palestine and Israel reached the Agreement on Access to and Out of Gaza
After Hamas came to power in 2006, it required it to accept the “three conditions” (recognize Israel, renounce violence, and abide by the agreements reached between Palestine and Israel), and imposed political isolation and economic blockade on Palestine. After Abbas dissolved the coalition government in June 2007, he resumed dialogue with Abbas and established a working group for negotiations.
On November 26, Palestine and Israel participated in the Annapolis International Conference on Middle East Issues hosted by the United States, In 2008, Palestine and Israel continued to negotiate, but no peace agreement was reached. In December, Israel launched a large-scale military operation against Hamas and other armed factions in the Gaza Strip, and the Palestinian-Israeli peace talks were suspended.
After the establishment of the new government in March 2009, it expressed its willingness to negotiate with Pakistan in accordance with the “road map” plan. In May 2010, Palestine and Israel began indirect negotiations under the auspices of the United States. In early September, the two sides resumed direct negotiations. However, due to Israel’s insistence on building Jewish settlements in the occupied territories, Palestine announced the suspension of peace talks with Israel on October 8.
At the beginning of 2012, Palestine and Israel contacted on the resumption of talks under the promotion of the “quartet mechanism” on the Middle East issue and Jordan. The leaders of the two sides also exchanged letters in April and May. Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu also made public for the first time. Expressed support for the Palestinians to establish a “territorially coherent” state. However, there have always been serious differences between the two sides on key issues such as Jewish settlements.
From November 14 to 21, in retaliation for Hamas and other Palestinian armed organizations, the Israeli army launched a large-scale airstrike on the Gaza Strip, causing serious casualties and property losses to the Palestinian side. On November 29, the 67th UN General Assembly granted Palestine the status of an observer state to the United Nations. Israel strongly opposed this and immediately adopted retaliatory measures such as building new settlement houses and stopping the transfer of customs duties to Pakistan. Since March 2013, under the urging of the United States, Palestine and Israel have resumed peace talks.
At the end of July 2013, Palestine and Israel resumed peace talks under the impetus of the United States. At the end of April 2014, after the peace talks reached a deadlock again, the relationship between Palestine and Israel deteriorated sharply. On July 8, Israel launched a military operation code-named “Protection of the Border” in the Gaza Strip controlled by Hamas. The military strike lasted for 51 days, causing heavy casualties and property damage to the Palestinian side.
Since mid-September 2015, there have been sporadic conflicts between Palestine and Israel in many places, resulting in a large number of casualties.
Relations with the United States
The United States has long refused to recognize the Palestine Liberation Organization. In December 1988, after the PLO announced its acceptance of UN Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338 and publicly condemned terrorism, the United States and Palestine began a dialogue. In September 1993, Palestine and Israel signed the Washington Declaration, and the United States subsequently announced that it recognized Palestine Liberation as a representative of the Palestinian people.
On June 24, 1994, the United States upgraded the Pakistan office in the United States to an official mission and used the US consulate in Jerusalem to communicate with Pakistan. In December 2002, the United States led the “quartet mechanism” on the Middle East issue to draft a “road map” plan for Middle East peace, and actively promoted its implementation.
After Hamas won the election and formed a cabinet in 2006, the United States reacted strongly, reiterating that Hamas is a “terrorist organization”, saying that it will not engage with the Pakistani government and requesting the international community to isolate Hamas until it changes its position and accepts the “three Conditions” and stop direct assistance to Pakistan. After Abbas disbanded the coalition government in June 2007, the United States lifted its economic blockade on the West Bank and promoted the Palestinian-Israeli dialogue.
On November 26, the International Conference on the Middle East (namely the Annapolis Conference) was held to propose the Palestinians With the idea of “two countries” coexisting peacefully. In January 2008,
US President Bush visited Pakistan and announced the launch of the tripartite committee mechanism established by the Annapolis Conference. The United States will supervise Palestine and Israel’s implementation of the “road map” plan. US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice has visited Palestine and Israel many times to promote peace talks.
After the Obama administration took office in 2009, it actively promoted the Palestinian-Israeli peace talks. In May, Abbas visited the United States.
In September, US President Obama urged the tripartite leaders of the United States, Palestine, and Israel to meet in New York during the UN General Assembly. In 2010, US Vice President Biden and Middle East Special Envoy Mitchell frequently visited Palestine, which eventually led Palestine to accept the resumption of indirect peace talks with Israel under the auspices of the United States in May, and resumes direct negotiations with Israel in September. After the Israeli side refused to extend the freezing order for the construction of Jewish settlements, the negotiations were suspended.
In May 2011, US President Barack Obama proposed in his Middle East policy speech that the border between Palestine and Israel should be based on the 1967 boundary line and be delineated through land replacement approved by both sides. Pakistan welcomes this. However, the United States firmly opposes Pakistan’s approach to refer the issue of independent nation-building to the United Nations. In March 2012, Obama called Abbas to reiterate his commitment to promoting the Middle East peace process. In November, the 67th UN General Assembly voted on a draft resolution granting Palestine the status of a UN observer state, and the United States voted against it.
In March 2013, Obama visited Palestine, Israel, and other regional countries at the beginning of his second term, reiterating the settlement of the Palestinian-Israeli dispute based on the “two-state solution.” US Secretary of State Kerry visited regional countries many times to promote the resumption of peace talks between Palestine and Israel and proposed plans to strengthen Palestinian economic capacity,
improve the lives of Palestinians, and establish a US$4 billion aid fund. At the end of July 2013, under the vigorous promotion of the international community, especially the United States, Palestine-Israel restarted peace talks. In April 2014, the peace talks reached a deadlock. At the end of 2015, when the sporadic conflicts between Palestine and Israel continued to escalate, US Secretary of State Kerry visited Palestine and Israel for mediation.
Relations with EU countries
The PLO attaches great importance to the development of relations with EU countries and has sent representatives to more than 10 EU countries. After the Gulf crisis, EU countries accused the PLO of supporting Iraq in the Gulf crisis. On February 6, 1991, the foreign ministers of the European Community 12 announced the freezing of contacts with the PLO and Arafat. After the Gulf War ended, the relationship between EU countries and the PLO gradually recovered.
After Palestine and Israel signed the Palestine Autonomy Agreement, EU countries began to establish representative offices in the Palestine Autonomous Region or contact the Palestine Autonomous Government through the Consulate General in Jerusalem and provided a large amount of assistance to the Palestinian National Authority.
After Hamas won the election and formed a cabinet in 2006, the EU asked Hamas to accept the “three conditions.” After Abbas dissolved the coalition government in June 2007, the European Union expressed its support for Abbas. Since 2010, Abbas has visited Britain, France, Germany, Spain, Belgium, Greece, and other countries many times to seek EU support for the independent establishment of Palestine.
Since 2011, Britain, France, Spain, Italy, and other countries have successively announced the promotion of Pakistan’s representative offices in the country to diplomatic missions. However, the EU has different positions on the issue of Pakistan’s accession to the United Nations and other international organizations.
In July 2013, the European Union introduced new restrictions on Israeli settlements, that is, since 2014, institutions located in settlements cannot receive EU grants, gifts, financial instruments, and other funding. In October 2014, Sweden recognized the status of Palestine and promoted the Palestinian representative office in Sweden to an embassy.  In June 2015, the Vatican officially recognized the State of Palestine.
The parliaments of France, Britain, Belgium, Italy, and other countries have voted for the government to recognize Pakistan’s status. In June 2015, French Foreign Minister Fabius visited Palestine and Israel. In July, Italian Prime Minister Renzi visited Palestine and Israel. In June 2016, France organized a meeting of foreign ministers in support of the Middle East Peace Initiative
Relations with Russia
The PLO has close relations with the former Soviet Union. Arafat has visited the Soviet Union many times.
After Abbas disbanded the coalition government in 2007, Russia expressed support for Abbas’s legal status and called on all parties in Pakistan to resolve their differences through dialogue. In April and December 2008, and January 2010, Abbas visited Russia. Russia proposes to hold an international conference on the Middle East in Moscow to comprehensively promote the Middle East peace process.
In February 2011, during a visit to Palestine by then Russian President Medvedev, he publicly expressed support for the establishment of an independent Palestinian state with East Jerusalem as its capital. After the Pakistani factions achieved reconciliation in May, Russia invited the Pakistani factions to conduct consultations in Moscow on implementing the reconciliation agreement.
In June 2012, Russian President Putin visited Palestine. In November, the 67th UN General Assembly voted on a draft resolution granting Palestine the status of a UN observer state, and Russia voted in favor. In March 2013, Abbas visited Russia. In April 2015, Abbas visited Russia and met with Russian leaders such as President Putin and Prime Minister Medvedev.
Jericho Ancient Ruins
Jericho City is located on the West Bank of the Jordan River and east of Jerusalem. It implemented Palestinian autonomy in 1993 and is the capital of Jericho Province. . People settled here more than 9,000 years ago. Jericho is known as the “lowest city in the world” and its location is 300 meters below sea level.
Birthplace of Jesus
Birthplace of Jesus: The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem and the pilgrimage route is one of the latest World Cultural Heritage-listed on June 29, 2012. Due to the damage caused by water seepage, this heritage was also listed in the ” World in Danger ” Heritage List.
Al Aqsa mosque
The mosque was built in the era of King Walid in 709 AD and was renamed Aqsa Mosque during the Mamluk period at the end of the 13th century. Later, it was damaged by an earthquake, and the marble column was donated by Mussolini when it was rebuilt, and the ceiling and roof were donated by King Farouk of Egypt.
There have also been two major incidents in this mosque. One was the assassination of King Abdullah of Jordan at the door on July 20, 1951. The current King Hussein miraculously escaped due to wearing a chest protector and a medal. The traces of the past are still obviously left on the cylinder. Another incident occurred in 1969. Crazy Australians set fire in the temple, and the damage caused is still being repaired.
For Jews, the Jerusalem Old City is the most sacred place than 3,000 years ago by Solomon built dedicated to ” The Ten Commandments ” the ark of the temple, the temple has been occupied Babylon and the Romans destroyed the only remaining only The outer wall is ruined. The bottom stone of the wall on the west side was built during the time of King Herod, and the rock blocks on the mountainside were built by Byzantium and Islam. The original text of the Western Wall is Occidental, which means the Wall of Europe. At the beginning of the Christian era, Europeans believed that Jerusalem was the end of Europe, and this wall was the dividing line between Europe and Asia.