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Afghanistan the “graveyard of empires”- best info 2021


The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, abbreviated as “Afghanistan”, is a landlocked country on the West Asian plateau in central and western Asia. It borders Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan to the north, Iran to the west, Pakistan to the south and east, and China to the northeast. Bordering. Afghanistan covers an area of   647,500 square kilometers, the climate is mainly continental, with “Afghan wind” in autumn, and the northeast is a plateau and mountain climate zone. As of February 2021, Afghanistan has 34 provinces, and the capital is Kabul. As of 2020, the population of Afghanistan is approximately 32.9 million.     

In 1747, the Kingdom of Afghanistan was established and was once strong. After the 19th century, Afghanistan’s national power was declining, and it became a battlefield for Britain and Tsarist Russia. In 1919, Afghanistan gained independence from British colonial rule, and August 19 was Independence Day. In 1973, the Republic of Afghanistan was established, ending the kingdom period.

In 1978, Afghanistan was renamed the “Democratic Republic of Afghanistan”.The Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan In December 1979,  In 1987, the name of Afghanistan was restored to the “Republic of Afghanistan”. In February 1989, the Soviet army fell into a civil war after withdrawing from Afghanistan. In 1992, the Islamic State of Afghanistan was established. In October 1997, Afghanistan was renamed the “Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan” and the Taliban regime implemented Islamic rule. In December 2001, Afghanistan established an interim government, and the country was named the “Islamic State of Afghanistan”. In 2004, Afghanistan was renamed “Islamic Republic of Afghanistan”

      Afghanistan is the least developed country in the world, and more than 6 million refugees have been produced by wars in more than 30 years. Although Afghanistan is rich in mineral resources, it has not been developed due to the war, and its industrial base has almost collapsed. As an agricultural and animal husbandry country, Afghanistan, with farmers and herders accounting for about 80% of the country’s population, is the center of the ” Golden Crescent “, the world’s largest drug source. Afghanistan is the cradle of Mahayana Buddhism. The main tourist resources are Bamiyan Valley and Jam Minaret.

Table of Contents


 Prehistoric Afghanistan

The history of Afghanistan can be traced back to the period of the Persian Empire, which was incorporated into Persia during the expedition of Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BC.

After Alexander invaded in 329 BC, it was incorporated into his empire. After the death of Alexander, the empire was divided into three parts, and the Afghan region was transferred to the eastern Seleucid dynasty.

Around 250 BC, the Governor of Bactria, Theodore, located between the Amu Darya and the Hindu Kush Mountains (including northern Afghanistan), separated from the Seleucid dynasty and became independent and established the Hellenistic Baktris Asian kingdom, the front half of the second century most powerful, has spread to the Indus Valley, due to decline in the parades.

The Dayue people who originally resided in the Hexi Corridor were defeated by the Huns and moved west to the Amu Darya Valley. In the first half of the second century BC, They conquered Daxia from 140 to 130 BC and brought Greece into Central Asia. People rushed to northwestern India.

       In the 1st century AD, Guishuang unified the tribes and expanded into the powerful Guishuang Kingdom. Its prosperity stretched from the Aral Sea in the west to Congling in the east, and straddled Central Asia and the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent, advocating Mahayana Buddhism. After the third century, it gradually declined and split into several small countries. The first half of the fifth century was annihilated by the gangsters who attacked from the north.

Blaster period

The Lauda are nomadic people, originally inhabited in the Altai Mountains, and their ministers belonged to Rouran. The Romans mistakenly referred to them as ” White Huns .” Early fifth-century westward, after having conquered the Ili River basin, the river area, Tocharian, northwest India, also defeated the Persian Sassanids, kill their emperor, became a strong family daunting, the ruling center-right In today’s Afghanistan, Zoroastrianism is believed.

About 567 years, the Sassanid Persian people and the Western Turks joint strike-off Hephthalite empire to divide the Amu Darya as the boundary of its territory. Tochar was assigned to Persia, but soon (about 568) was captured by the Western Turks.

In 627, Yehu Khan sent his eldest son to establish a Turkic dynasty in Tocharo.

        After the Chinese Tang army destroyed the Western Turks, the Turkic king of Tocharo turned to China to become his vassal, and the Tang Dynasty set up the Yue’s capital here. In and around Afghanistan, there are still several small states belonging to Tocharo’s ministers: guarding secrets, guarding the time Qiang (the Shazhou Dudu’s residence in the Tang Dynasty), Yibin (Xiuxian Dudu’s residence), and Fanyan ( wufeng Dudu’s residence). ), Hadalo branch (Tiaozhi Dudu Mansion), Gu Duo (Gao Fu Dudu Mansion). In addition, Tang also at 662–674 years in exile to seal the end of the Persian Emperor of China, son of Peroz III to the Persian emperor, set in eastern Persia and the Persian territory Dudufu in Afghanistan.

      At the beginning of the eighth century, Arab forces entered and took control of Tochar. 751 years since the Battle of Talas after Congling west of Central Asia foes attributed to the Arabs, then gradual Islamization of Central Asia.

In 821, the governor of the Abbasid dynasty of the Arabian empire (black-clothed) Khorasan governor Tahir established the Tahir dynasty, which owns the northern part of Central Asia, the middle of the river, and Afghanistan. It recognizes the sovereignty of the Caliphate in name but looks like independence.

In 867, the army commander of Sistan Province, Yakubu (nicknamed Safar), set up the Safar dynasty. In 873, the Tahir dynasty was destroyed. It took possession of most of Persia, rivers, Afghanistan, and western India, with the center in Khorasan. Once invaded Baghdad. Soon, the Saman dynasty established by local Persian generals emerged in the Hezhong area, and the Safar dynasty was destroyed in 900.

In 962, the governor of the Khorasan Turkic tribe, Alp Tekin, became independent from Ghazni City, became the leader, established the Ghazni dynasty, and occupied Afghanistan. At the end of the tenth century, the Saman dynasty was destroyed, and parts of Central Asia and Persia, and the northern part of the Indus were successively acquired. In the 11th century, it was hit by the Seljuk Turkmen and declined and lost Persian and Central Asian territories.

In the middle of the twelfth century, the Gul dynasty emerged in the Gul mountain area between Herat and Ghazni, and soon took possession of the entire territory of Afghanistan, and later destroyed the Ghazni dynasty, occupying one each of Persia and India, 1215 Around the year, the Gul dynasty was extinguished by the Huarazim dynasty that rose in the river.

In 1220, Khorizmah was destroyed by the Mongols. Afterward, Afghanistan was ruled by the Mongol Khanate, the Ilkhanate, and some small regimes attached to the Mongols. After the rise of the Turkic Timur, it returned to its rule. After Timur’s death, Afghanistan became a battlefield for the descendants of Timur and the Turkman black sheep dynasty of West Asia, and it was transferred to the Persians after the 16th century.

Kingdom and modern times.

In 1747, Ahmed, the Abu Dari chief of the Pashtun tribe of Afghanistan, took advantage of the decline of Persia to become independent and established the Durani dynasty, which formally formed a unified Afghan nation. It has gone through two dynasties of the Durani dynasty (1747-1826) and the Barakzai dynasty (1826-1973). In the meantime, they defeated the British invasion three times in 1839-1842, 1879-1880, and 1919.

Before World War II, Afghanistan had always been a British colonial area that Britain and Russia repeatedly fought over. Afghanistan lives between these two beasts.

After the war, Europe fell, and the world entered an environment where the US and the Soviet Union competed for hegemony. All other forces were pawns in the struggle between them. Little Afghanistan is no exception.

In the 1950s, Afghanistan and Pakistan had a serious dispute over the Pashtostan issue, and the war between the two countries was on the verge of breaking out. The Soviet Union seized this favorable opportunity to express its firm support for Afghanistan’s position on this issue, attacked pro-American Pakistan at the time, and quickly pulled Afghanistan into the embrace of the Soviet Union.

Zahir was the king of Afghanistan at that time. Zahir founded the National Bank of Afghanistan, paying attention to economic development. During Daoud’s tenure as prime minister, the Afghan economy has made considerable progress.

From 1973 to September 1979, the Soviet Union launched three coups in Afghanistan. First, King Zahir was overthrown by the Prime Minister and his cousin Daoud, and Daoud was overthrown by Nur Mohammed Taraki in the following years. Taraki was then overthrown by Hafizola Amin. They were all unwilling to be at the mercy of the Soviet Union and were instigated by the Soviet Union. Except for the king and Daoud, all these fighting figures are from different factions of the Afghan People’s Democratic Party (a communist party in Afghanistan established by Taraki).

At the end of September 1979, the Soviet Union decided to send troops to Afghanistan. The Soviet army was trapped in the quagmire of the guerrillas of various forces, making it difficult to fight quickly. After Gorbachev came to power, he decided to carry out a series of reforms to the country and at the same time decided to end the fruitless war in Afghanistan. The last group of Soviet troops withdrew in early 1989.

In 1994, by the Taliban, Mullah Omar in Pakistan and Afghanistan established a border, mostly members of the local warlord dissatisfied students, hence the name. Representing the interests of the lowest mainstream Pashtun people, sweeping the country in just a few years. They are the Taliban. ” Taliban ” is derived from Arabic and means “student”. The Taliban is a rigorous organization of Islamic fundamentalism. In the anti-warlord struggle in Kandahar, the Taliban eliminated the local warlords and controlled the entire Kandahar.

Politically, the Taliban advocate “eliminating the warlords and rebuilding the country.” They are not attached to any faction. They regard the Koran as a law, and their goal is to transform the Afghan country and society in accordance with Islamic fundamentalism. Propaganda to build a unified, peaceful, and prosperous Afghanistan, supported by tax cuts and strict commandments, has been widely supported.

Basically occupied the whole country in 1997. Although their policies are much more formal than those of warlords, their policies such as brutal torture, discrimination against women, resistance to all modernizations other than weapons, and hatred of all paganism have kept this country alive in repression and terror until 2001 after 9/11 in the United States. The U.S. overthrew the Taliban regime on the grounds of attacking bin Laden in hiding. Subsequently, conflicts between the US military and local armed forces and various violent incidents continued.

After the “September 11” incident in 2001, the Taliban regime collapsed under military strikes by the United States and NATO “coalition forces”. Under the auspices of the United Nations, Afghanistan launched the “Bonn Process” of post-war reconstruction. On December 5 of the same year, the interim government of Afghanistan was established, and Karzai was elected as the chairman of the interim government. From June 11 to 19, 2002, Afghanistan held an emergency Loya jirga in Kabul and elected a transitional government with Karzai as its president.

      In January 2004, Afghanistan promulgated a new constitution and named the country the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. In September 2004, Afghanistan held its first presidential election; in October, Karzai was elected as the first elected president. In September 2005, Afghanistan held national and local parliament elections; in December, the new parliament was established and the “Bonn Process” ended. In August 2009, Afghanistan held its second presidential election; on November 19, Karzai won the second presidential election for re-election.

      In July 2010, the Afghan International Conference was held in Kabul to launch the “Kabul Process” to promote the “Afghanistan governing Afghanistan”. In November of the same year, the NATO Lisbon Summit announced that it would start withdrawing troops in 2011 and complete the transfer of security responsibilities to the Afghan government by the end of 2014. In June 2014, Afghanistan held a presidential election.

On September 21, the Afghan Independent Electoral Commission announced that former Finance Minister Ashraf Ghani had won the presidential election and formed a government of national unity with Chief Executive Abdullah. In October 2018, Afghanistan held a new round of parliamentary elections.

On September 28, 2019, Afghanistan held a presidential election. Violent incidents occurred frequently during the election process, and the voter turnout rate was not high. On February 18, 2020, the Afghan Independent Election Commission announced the victory of the current President Ghani, and Abdullah refused to recognize the results of the election. On May 18, Ghani and Abdullah signed a decentralization agreement. Abdullah served as the chairman of the Albanian High Commission for National Reconciliation and established an inclusive government.

Chronology of Afghanistan’s Modern History

                  Kingdom period

1747-1818Saduchay Dynasty (Durani Dynasty)
1818-1834Warlord melee
1834-1839Emirate of Dusit Mohammed
1843-1878Dusit Dynasty
1880-1901Abdul Rahman Dynasty
1901-1919Habiba Dynasty
1919-1929Amanullah Dynasty
1929-1933Nadir Dynasty
1933-1973Zahir Dynasty
Republic period
1973-1978The Republic of Afghanistan
1978-1987Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
1987-1992The Republic of Afghanistan
1992-1996Islamic State of Afghanistan
1996-2001Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (Taliban regime)
2001-2004Islamic State of Afghanistan (Transitional Government)
2004 to presentIslamic Republic of Afghanistan

Natural environment

Regional location

The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is located in West Asia, at the western end of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. It is a mountainous landlocked country. Afghanistan is bordered by Turkmenistan, the Republic of Uzbekistan, and the Republic of Tajikistan in the north, the Islamic Republic of Iran in the west, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in the south and east, and the protruding narrow strip ( Wahan Corridor ) in the northeast borders the People’s Republic of China.

The four territories of Afghanistan are east (74.89° east longitude), south (29.36° north latitude), west (60.50° east longitude), and north (38.49° north latitude), with an area of   647,500 square kilometers


The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is a mountainous and plateau country with rugged terrain, sloping from the northeast to the southwest. The northeast end is the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau ( Pamirs ). The Hindu Kush mountain range runs diagonally from the northeast to the southwest. Among them, the border peak of Pakistan, Noshak Peak, is 7485 meters above sea level, which is the highest peak in the country.

In the north are plains and foothills, and most of them are below 500 meters above sea level. The south is a desert plateau area with an altitude of 500-1000 meters. The central part is a high mountain and deep valley, with an altitude of 1000-5000 meters

Climate characteristics

       The territory of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is mostly a continental climate zone, with climate types such as subtropical arid and semi-arid climates, and plateau and mountainous climates. Most parts of Afghanistan are dry and drier throughout the year, with cold winters and hot summers. The average annual rainfall in the country is only about 240 mm. Mountain areas are cold in winter and cool in summer, while plain areas are warm in winter and hot in summer.

Water system distribution

Most of the rivers in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan are inland rivers, mostly deserts, and lakes. The main rivers are Amu Darya , Kabul, Helmand and Hariri rivers, etc

Natural resources

The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is rich in mineral resources but has not been fully exploited. As of 2021, the proven resources mainly include natural gas, coal, salt, chromium, iron, copper, mica, and emeralds. The Aynak Copper Mine located in the south of the capital Kabul has a total proven ore reserve of about 700 million tons and a total copper metal of 11.33 million tons. It is estimated that it may be the third-largest copper mine belt in the world. Afghanistan may also have the fifth largest iron ore vein in the world, with coal reserves of about 73 million tons

Administrative divisions

Zoning details

First-level administrative region

The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan has 34 provinces, including counties, districts, townships, and villages; the largest province is Helmand (58,681 square kilometers), and the smallest province is Kapisa (1909 square kilometers)

Afghan provinces table

Second-level administrative region

The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan has 328 county-level administrative districts. The largest is Char Burjak County (21,182 square kilometers), and the smallest is Herat City (35 square kilometers).

main city


Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan, means trade hub. In 1773, the Durani dynasty unified Afghanistan and set its capital here, and later developed into an important town on the “Silk Road”

Kabul has an area of   211 square kilometers. With a population of 4.22 million in 2019, Kabul is the largest city in Afghanistan. Kabul is about 1,800 meters above sea level, surrounded by mountains, and has four distinct seasons. The annual average temperature is 13 degrees Celsius.

The Hamid Karzai International Airport in the northeastern suburb of Kabul is the main airport for entry and exit of Afghanistan, which can directly reach China, the UAE, India, Pakistan, Turkey, Iran, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and other countries.


Herat, the capital of Herat Province, has an area of   35 square kilometers and is the smallest city in Afghanistan. In 2018, Herat had a population of 578,000, making it the second-largest city in Afghanistan.

Mazar Sharif Mazarsharif), also known as Mazar-e Sharif, capital of Balkh province, an area of 66 square kilometers, an area of Afghanistan is the third smallest city. In 2018, Mazar Sharif had a population of 519,000, making it the third-largest city in Afghanistan.


Kandahar, the capital of Kandahar Province, covers an area of   629 square kilometers. In 2018, Kandahar had a population of 271,000, making it the fourth largest city in Afghanistan.

National symbol

National flag

    The flag of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan has been in use since 2013 and has a black, red, and green tricolor flag. Black symbolizes the past, the era when Afghanistan was humiliated by the powers; red symbolizes blood, Afghanistan initiated and shed blood for the holy war, and the suffering suffered by the Afghan people; green symbolizes the future, after the collapse of imperialism, Afghanistan will prosper. At the same time, these three colors are also typical Islamic colors. The main body of the national flag is the national emblem located in the center.

      The center of the national emblem is composed of a white mosque niche and a pulpit. In the center of the upper part is the Islamic language (الشهادة‎) that connects the day of ascension, and there are two white flags on both sides. The lower part of the Islamic Words is written with “Allah Is Great” (الله أكبر). Located in the lower part of the national emblem is the name of the country “Afghanistan” (افغانستان) and the Arabic numeral “1298” (١٢٩٨), representing the year 1919 (Islamic calendar 1298) when Afghanistan became independent from the United Kingdom. The periphery of the national emblem is surrounded by two ears of wheat.

national emblem

The national emblem of Afghanistan is round and was opened in 2005. The two bundles of the national emblem are rounded with ears of grain tied with a ribbon.

The middle is a mosque pattern with Islamic religious colors. The upper part is the name of the country of Afghanistan written in Arabic, and the lower part is a famous Islamic saying: “All things are not the Lord, only Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of Allah”. The whole pattern is surrounded by two Arab machetes with crossed handles and is golden yellow. In the center of the upper part of the national emblem, there is a Sahara attached to the rising sun, and the national emblem is surrounded by two wheat ears.

National flower

The national flower of Afghanistan is the tulip. The original meaning of the tulip is a kind of flower. In terms of plant taxonomy, it is a kind of bulbous herb belonging to the genus Tulip of the Liliaceae family (scientific name: Tulip).

National Tree

Mulberry: Mulberry is a deciduous tree belonging to the genus Moraceae. Mulberry leaves are egg-shaped and are feed to silkworms. Deciduous tree, 16m high, 1m diameter at breast height. The crown is obovate. The leaves are ovate or broadly ovate, apex pointed or tapered, base round or heart-shaped, serrations thick and obtuse, young tree leaves are often lobed, deeply divided, glabrous on the top, sparse hairs along the veins on the bottom, vein axillary Tufted hairs. Juhuaguo (mulberry) is purple-black, reddish or white, juicy and sweet. Flowering in April; fruit ripening from May to July.

National anthem

” Afghan National Anthem ” (Pashto: ملی سرود, Milli Surood; Persian: سرود ملی, Surūd-E Millī ) under section 20 of the content, “the Afghan Constitution” OK, in May 2006 formally adopted, lyrics In Pashto, according to the constitution, the lyrics must mention the names of the tribes in Afghanistan and “Allah is great.”

Population nation.


   The population of Afghanistan in 2019 is approximately 32.2 million, of which 51% are males and 49% are females. The urban population is 7.7 million, the rural population is 23 million, and another 1.5 million are nomads. The annual population growth rate is about 2.14%. Due to the perennial war, the proportion of young people in the Afghan population is very high, of which 15.4 million people are under 15 years old, accounting for 47.7%, ranking among the highest in the world. The population over 65 years old accounts for only 2.7%.

Years of war have brought serious disasters to Afghan society. According to United Nations statistics, nearly a quarter of Afghanistan’s 32.2 million population have left their homes. Currently, there are still 4.6 million Afghans in exile in the world, of which 2.7 million have obtained refugee status. Pakistan and Iran have hosted 1.4 million and 1 million Afghan refugees respectively.

According to the Ministry of Refugee and Repatriation Affairs, more than 540,000 refugees have returned to Afghanistan from March 2019 to March 2020. According to statistics from the United Nations Refugee Agency, various armed conflicts and turbulence in the security situation caused more than 400,000 people to be displaced across the country in 2019.


The Pashtuns in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan account for 40%, the Tajiks account for 25%, and there are more than 20 ethnic minorities such as Hazara, Uzbek, and Turkmen. Pashto and Dari are official languages. Other languages include Uzbek, Baluchi, Turkish, etc. Sunni Muslim 86%, Shi’a Muslim 13%, other 1%.


Afghanistan has a presidential republic. The President is the head of state and the highest executive of the country. The President has privileges in the executive, legislative and judicial fields. The president is elected by the people for a five-year term. The ministers are nominated by the President and appointed by the Parliament.

    In December 2001, the United Nations signed the “Bonn Agreement” with representatives of the Afghan Northern Alliance, the former King Zahir, and the Pashtun anti-Taliban organization, which established the basic framework for the political reconstruction of the “separation of powers” in Afghanistan. 

On April 5, 2014, Afghanistan held the first round of presidential elections, and no candidate obtained a simple majority of more than 50%. On June 14, the second round of presidential elections was held. On September 21, former Finance Minister Ashraf Ghani was elected President of Afghanistan. In September 2019, Afghanistan held presidential elections. On March 9, 2020, Ghani held an inauguration ceremony.


From January 2002 to January 2004, the Transitional Government of Afghanistan followed the 1964 Constitution promulgated by the former King Zahir. On January 26, 2004, President Karzai of the Transitional Government of Afghanistan signed and promulgated a new constitution, establishing the name of the country as the “Islamic Republic of Afghanistan” and implementing the presidential system.


  The Loya Jirga in Afghanistan, also known as the Great National Assembly. In June 2002, Afghanistan convened an emergency Loya jirga and elected an Afghan transitional government headed by President Karzai. A constitutional Loya jirga was held in December 2003 to formulate and pass a new constitution.

According to the new Constitution of Afghanistan, the Great Loya Jirga is the highest expression of the will of the Afghan people. It is the highest legislative body in the country. It is composed of the People’s Chamber (lower house) and the House of Elders (upper house) as well as the presidents of the provincial assemblies.

       It is responsible for formulating and amending the constitution and approving other state Relevant laws; power to decide issues concerning the independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, and national interests of the country; review the list of cabinet composition submitted by the president; cabinet ministers, Supreme Court judges, and justices can attend meetings; meetings are held irregularly.

There are no more than 250 members of the People’s Chamber, and they are evenly distributed according to the population of each region, but each province is guaranteed to have at least 2 female members. Members of the House of Elders are indirectly elected from among the members of the management committees of the provinces and districts.

     The National Assembly has the power to impeach the president, but it must convene the Loya Jirga and obtain a 2/3 majority to remove the president. The Peace Loya Jirga was held in June 2010, calling on the Taliban and others to participate in the political reconciliation process.

The new parliament was elected in September 2010 and was formally established in January 2011. The current chairman of the House of Elders is Fazal Hadi Musrimyar, and the chairman of the House of People is Abdul Rauf Ibrahimi. The Great Loya Jirga was held in November 2011 to discuss the signing of a strategic partnership document between Afghanistan and the United States.


The current cabinet members of Afghanistan include President Ashraf Ghani, Vice President Mohamed Qasim Fahim, Vice President Mohammed Karim Khalili, and Cabinet Minister Haidayat Amin Al Sarah, Minister of Foreign Affairs Zalmai Rassoul, Minister of Defense General Abdul Rahim Wardak, Minister of Interior Bismila Khan Mohammedi, Minister of Finance Omar Zahei Alwar, Minister of Justice Habibra Garib, Minister of Hajj and Islamic Affairs Mohamed Yusuf Neyaz, Minister of Economy Abdul Hadi Argandiwal,

      Minister of Rural Rehabilitation and Development Vis Ahmed Barmack, Minister of Martyrs, Disabled People and Social Affairs Amina Afzari, Minister of Anti-narcotics Zalal Ahmed Mukbeil, Minister of Education Farouk Varda K, Minister of Information and Culture Said Mahdum Racine, Minister of Mines Vahidullah Sharani, Minister of Agriculture Mohammed Assef Rahimi,

Minister of Commerce and Industry Anwar Haq Ahadi, Minister of Public Works Najibullah Ochan, Minister of Energy and Water Mohamed Ismail Khan, Minister of Women’s Affairs Hasson Banu Gazanfar (female), Minister of Urban Development Hassan Abdou Rahei, Minister of Higher Education Obidullah Obaid, Minister of Public Health Soraya Dalil, Minister of Transport and Civil Aviation Daoud Ali Najafi.

   In addition, there are 4 acting ministers: Minister of Public Welfare Sohrab Ali Safari, Minister of Communications Amirzai Sankin, Minister of Border and Tribal Affairs Alcala Jamal, Minister of Refugee Affairs Amir Abdul Rahim.

The main economic departments include the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Industry and Commerce, the Ministry of Economy, the Ministry of Mining and Petroleum, the Ministry of Energy and Water Resources, the Ministry of Transportation, and the Bank of Afghanistan.

Years of war have brought serious disasters to Afghan society. According to United Nations statistics, nearly a quarter of Afghanistan’s 32.2 million population have left their homes. Currently, there are still 4.6 million Afghans in exile in the world, of which 2.7 million have obtained refugee status.

Pakistan and Iran have hosted 1.4 million and 1 million Afghan refugees respectively. According to the Ministry of Refugee and Repatriation Affairs, more than 540,000 refugees have returned to Afghanistan from March 2019 to March 2020. According to statistics from the United Nations Refugee Agency, various armed conflicts and turbulence in the security situation caused more than 400,000 people to be displaced across the country in 2019.

     The top ten provinces in Afghanistan by the total population

Afghanistan has a presidential republic. The President is the head of state and the highest executive of the country. The President has privileges in the executive, legislative and judicial fields. The president is elected by the people for a five-year term. The ministers are nominated by the President and appointed by the Parliament.

    In December 2001, the United Nations signed the “Bonn Agreement” with representatives of the Afghan Northern Alliance, the former King Zahir, and the Pashtun anti-Taliban organization, which established the basic framework for the political reconstruction of the “separation of powers” in Afghanistan. 

On April 5, 2014, Afghanistan held the first round of presidential elections, and no candidate obtained a simple majority of more than 50%. On June 14, the second round of presidential elections was held. On September 21, former Finance Minister Ashraf Ghani was elected President of Afghanistan. In September 2019, Afghanistan held presidential elections. On March 9, 2020, Ghani held an inauguration ceremony.


The Afghan justice system is divided into three levels. The most basic level is the local courts, with a total of about 350 nationwide; the middle level is the appeal court, which is located in the provinces of Afghanistan; the highest level is the Supreme Court, which is located in the capital Kabul.

political party

    The Transitional Government of Afghanistan promulgated the “Political Party Law” in October 2003. There were nearly 100 political parties in 2014. The main political parties include:

(1) Afghanistan Islamic Promotion Association: Established in 1972. Moderate Islam, members are mostly Tajiks. Sunni. The main leader is Muhammad Qasim Fahim.

(2) Afghanistan Islamic Unity Party (Khalili faction): The original Afghanistan Islamic Revolutionary Alliance, established in 1987. In 1991, it changed to its current name. In March 1995, the former leader Mazari was killed by the Taliban, and the party split. It belongs to the Shi’ite sect of Islam, and the members are mostly Hazara people. The chairman of the party is Mohamed Karim Khalili, who is now the second vice president of Afghanistan.

(3) The Islamic National Movement in Afghanistan: The main leader is Abdullah Sid Dostum, an Uzbek nationality.

(4) Afghan National Liberation Front: established in 1978. The nationalist faction, Pashtun,

belongs to Sunni Islamism. The main leader of the parliament is now Chairman of the Meshrano Jirga Sibghatullah Mojaddedi.

(5) Afghan Mujahideen Islamic League: Established in 1981. The Pashtuns belong to the Sunni sect of Islam. The main leader is Abdul Rasul Sayaf.

(6) The Islamic National Front of Afghanistan: Established in 1979. The nationalist faction, Pashtun, belongs to Sunni Islamism. The main leader is Said Gailani.


      Government Chief Abdullah Abdullah. Born on September 5, 1960, in the Panjshir Valley in northern Afghanistan. He graduated from Kabul University in 1983 with a bachelor’s degree in medicine. Served as Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Northern Alliance regime led by Masood. After the Taliban regime was overthrown in 2001, Abdullah served as Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Karzai government. In June 2006, Abdullah was fired. On September 29, 2014, he became the head of the Afghan government.

    Chairman of the House of Presbyterians: Fazal Hadi Musrimyar, chairman of the House of Presbyterians, born in 1970, of Pashtun ethnic group in Nangarhar Province. Received a bachelor’s degree in law and participated in the War of Resistance against the Soviet Union. From 2005 to 2009, he served as chairman of the Nangarhar Provincial Assembly. In 2010, he was elected the first vice-chairman of the House of Presbyterians of the Algerian Parliament. In January 2011, he was elected chairman of the Presbyterian House.

  Speaker of the People’s Chamber of Parliament: Abdul Raouf Ibrahimi. Former Uzbek warlord, from Kunduz province in northern Azerbaijan, participated in the war against the Soviet Union. In February 2011, he was elected as the Speaker of the People’s Court.


     Afghanistan is one of the most backward countries. After more than 30 years of war and chaos, economic destruction has been exhausted, transportation, communications, industry, education, and agricultural infrastructure have suffered the most severe damage, production and living materials are in short supply, and more than 6 million people have become refugees.

The international community actively supports Afghanistan’s peaceful reconstruction and development and has provided nearly 100 billion U.S. dollars in aid to Afghanistan. During the 2016 Brussels International Conference on Afghanistan, the international community promised to provide 15.2 billion U.S. dollars in aid to Afghanistan within four years.

     Since 2002, the Afghan national economy has shown “low-level rapid growth”, and the economy has gradually resumed development. In the 2013/14 fiscal year, the economy grew by 6.4% year-on-year, with a gross domestic product (GDP) of 21.2 billion U.S. dollars, a per capita GDP of 720 U.S. dollars, and a total foreign trade of 5.847 billion U.S. dollars.

In the 2019/2020 fiscal year, the main economic data of Afghanistan are as follows: Gross Domestic Product (GDP): 18.89 billion U.S. dollars. GDP per capita: US$586.6. GDP growth rate: 3.9%.



The name of the currency of Afghanistan: Afghani, abbreviated as Ani.

Official exchange rate (April 2007): Official exchange rate 1 U.S. dollar = 45 Ani (2011): Exchange rate: 1 U.S. dollar ≈ 77.8 Ani. (February 2021)

Currency conversion

  • 1 afghani = 100 pools
  • Currency: 25.50 Poole and 1.2.5 Afghani
  • Coin name: Poole
  • Inflation rate : 14.5%.
  • Inflation rate: 2.3%. (February 2021)

Agriculture and Animal Husbandry

      Agriculture and animal husbandry are the main pillars of Afghanistan’s national economy. The population of agriculture and animal husbandry accounts for 80% of the total population of the country. Cultivated land is less than 10% of the total land area of the country. The main crops include wheat, cotton, sugar beets, dried fruits, and various fruits. The main livestock products are fat-tailed sheep, cattle, goats, etc.

     Afghanistan is the center of the “Golden Crescent”, the world’s largest source of drugs. The output of opium in 2013 was 5,500 tons, the output of opium in 2015 was 3,300 tons, and the output of opium in 2018 was more than 6,400 tons, which seriously affected the process of peace and reconstruction in Afghanistan, and also brought threats and challenges to regional peace and security.

      Agriculture is the most important industry in Afghanistan. Agriculture absorbs about 40% of employment, and agricultural output value accounts for about 1/4 of GDP. Agribusiness lacks modern, high-tech agricultural facilities and basically depends on the sky for food. The main crops include wheat, barley, rice, corn, dried fruits, and various fruits. In recent years, Azerbaijan has had a bumper harvest year after year, but it is still not self-sufficient and needs international assistance or imported food every year. Animal husbandry is mainly based on stocking, including sheep, goats, and cattle.


   Years of wars have caused the industrial base of Afghanistan to collapse. Light industry and handicraft are the main industries, including textiles, fertilizers, cement, leather, carpets, electricity, sugar, metal manufacturing, agricultural products, and fruit processing.

   Years of war have basically collapsed Afghanistan’s industrial base, lacking a complete industrial system, and industrial output value only accounts for 1/5 of GDP. Mainly the light industry and handicraft industry, including the chemical industry, building materials, carpet, agricultural products processing, etc. Existing enterprises are mainly small and medium-sized enterprises, and there are basically no large-scale enterprises.

Most enterprises are labor-intensive, workshop-type primary processing plants, with small scale, backward production technology, and aging equipment, and their products are mainly for the domestic market.


In the 2006/2007 fiscal year, the direct budget of the Afghan government was US$2.205 billion, and the foreign aid development budget was US$2.95 billion. As of March 2006, Afghanistan’s foreign exchange reserves totaled approximately US$1.8 billion.

Foreign trade

Afghanistan has trade relations with more than 60 countries and regions. The main export commodities are natural gas, carpets, dried and fresh fruits, wool, cotton, and so on. The main imported commodities are various foods, motor vehicles, petroleum products, and textiles. The main export targets are Pakistan, the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, India, etc., and the main importing countries are China, Pakistan, the United States, Japan, South Korea, Turkmenistan, India, etc. The foreign trade situation is as follows (unit: 100 million U.S. dollars)

The main economic data for the 2017/2018 fiscal year are as follows:
  • Gross Domestic Product (GDP): 20.2 billion US dollars.
  • GDP per capita: US$681.
  • GDP growth rate: 2.9%.
  • Currency name: Afghani (Afghani), referred to as “Ani”.
  • Exchange rate: 1 US dollar ≈ 68 Ani.
  • Inflation rate: 4.4%.

Foreign aid

The international community has provided a large number of funds and material assistance to Afghanistan’s post-war reconstruction. Since 2002, the donor countries have pledged about 30 billion U.S. dollars (all in U.S. dollars) in aid, of which the U.S. 13.6 billion, the U.K. 1.46 billion, Japan 1.457 billion, Germany 960 million, EU 1 billion, India 755 million, and Canada 703 million-plus Yuan, 447 million in the Netherlands, 314 million in Norway, 304 million in Iran, 270 million in Italy, etc. So far, $12.8 billion has been secured.

At the same time, the international community has assisted the Afghan government in education, health, agricultural irrigation, transportation, telecommunications, and government offices with a large amount of basic equipment.



Afghan television media: There are 106 radio stations and 66 television stations nationwide. Radio Afghanistan was established in 1925 and broadcasts in 9 languages. The Afghan Television Station (RTV) was established in 1978 and broadcasts mainly in Persian and Pashto. Other major private TV stations include ToloTV, ATN, ATV, etc.

 Newspaper media: Afghanistan has 926 types of newspapers and magazines, of which Kabul accounts for about 80%. There are 3 mainstream newspapers: “Afghanistan Times” (English), “Daily Lookout” (English), and “Anis Daily” (Persian). Others include Seward Daily (Pashto), Kabul Times (English), and Cherag.


The staple food of the Afghans is naan and pilaf. Naan is made by grinding wheat, barley, corn, dried mulberries, and peas into flour. There are two kinds of stuffing and without stuffing. The pilaf is to pour the oil into a pot and heat it, add shredded carrots and chopped green onions, stir-fry, add water, mutton fat, salt, etc. to a boil, then enlarge the rice, serve it on a plate after cooking, and mix with lemon juice, chili or other seasonings.

     In summer, Afghans often drink a yogurt soup boiled in water with a proper amount of yogurt, salt, and cucumber slices. They like the sour, spicy, and fragrant tastes, but for religious reasons, they don’t drink alcohol. Milk and beef and mutton are important foods on the table. Chicken, duck, etc. are also eaten, pork is not eaten, and fish is rarely eaten. They often eat roast leg of lamb and grill the whole lamb on major festive days or entertaining guests.

    Afghans also eat “horse meat intestines.” “Horse meat intestines” are stuffed horse meat and salt into horse intestines, boiled, and dried.

Afghans often use milk as a drink, and they also like to drink tea. The types of tea include milk tea and brick tea. Inviting people to drink tea often has to drink three cups in a row. The first cup quenches thirst, the second cup expresses friendship, and the third cup is a courtesy. If you really don’t want to drink anymore, you can cover the cup with your hands to show rejection.

Afghans believe in Islam, men and women have different seats, and male and female guests cannot eat in the same room. Always wash your hands before meals, the guests wash first, and the host washes later. When eating, use the tray with your left hand and grab the food with your right hand. The order of meals is to serve the dishes first, the pilaf in the middle, and then the dishes and fruits. Guests should wash their hands after eating.


Pashto and Persian are the official languages. Other languages include Uzbek, Baluchi, Turkman, etc. Sunni Muslims accounted for 80%, Shia Muslims accounted for 19%, and others accounted for 1%.


Islam is generally believed in Afghanistan, with Muslims accounting for about 99%, of which 80% are Sunnis and 19% are Shiites. All Islamic taboos apply to Afghanistan, such as the prohibition of alcohol and pork. When working and living in Afghanistan, local religious beliefs should be respected in particular, and any words or deeds that insult the Koran and related patterns should be avoided.


Afghanistan is an Islamic country, and all Islamic taboos also apply, such as the prohibition of alcohol and pork. There are quite a lot of restrictions on women in Afghanistan. Generally, women wear a kind of clothing called BURKARD when they go out. They can’t see people from head to toe and can only see through small mesh windows. After the fall of the Taliban regime, this situation has changed a lot.

Many urban women have bravely put on Western-style clothes to “show their faces.” Afghan people usually greet them by shaking hands or putting their hands on their chests to show respect, and they will give face-to-face salutes between friends.


Afghanistan is an Islamic country with conservative clothes. Men should not wear shorts to go to the streets. Women should not wear narrow and revealing clothing. It is best to wear a headscarf. Government staff generally dress neatly, especially middle and upper-level officials all wear suits. Therefore, when visiting Afghan officials, Chinese personnel should pay attention to dress.


Government office days are Saturday to Thursday morning, and Thursday afternoon and Friday are public holidays. Workday at 8:00 am, leave at 12:00, get off work at 13:00 and leave at 16:00 in the afternoon. But the staff often arrive late and leave early.

  There are three kinds of calendars in Afghanistan: one is the A.D. calendar, the other is the Afghan Gregorian calendar, and the other is the Afghan lunar calendar (Islamic calendar). For example, May 25, 2017, is the Afghan Gregorian calendar, March 4, 1396, and the Afghan lunar calendar 1438. August 28. Among them, the solar calendar has 365 days a year, and the lunar calendar has 354 days a year.

     There are also two holidays in Afghanistan: religious holidays are calculated according to the lunar calendar, and the rest are calculated according to the solar calendar. Because the Gregorian calendar and the Gregorian calendar have the same number of days per year, the dates of the holidays in the Gregorian calendar are fixed in the Gregorian calendar each year; the lunar calendar has 11 days fewer days per year than the Gregorian calendar, so the religious festivals have different dates in the AD calendar each year. Generally, each year is higher than the previous year. About 10-11 days in advance.

  • Afghan New Year: March 21st each year
  • Afghanistan Independence Day: August 19 every year

  Eid al-Fitr: The date is not fixed every year (changes with the Islamic calendar), Eid al-Fitr is a public holiday. This is a day off for ordinary people. Schools and most businesses are closed.

Ramadan (also called Ramadan or Ramzan) is the ninth month in the Islamic calendar. This is an era when Muslims all over the world focus on prayer, fasting, charity, and religious beliefs. The last third of Ramadan is a particularly sacred period because it commemorates the discovery of the first verse of the Quran by the Prophet Muhammad (Muhammad or Muhammad). Ramadan is a public holiday. This is a day off for ordinary people. Schools and most businesses are closed.

  • Gurban Festival: The date is not fixed every year (changes with the Islamic calendar)
  • Victory Day in Afghanistan is a public holiday. This is a day off for ordinary people. Schools and most businesses are closed.
  • Arafat Day is a public holiday. This is a day off for ordinary people. Schools and most businesses are closed.


   In 2002, the Afghan Transitional Government began preparations for the establishment of the Afghan National Army with the help of the United States. According to the “Afghanistan NATO Summit Declaration” adopted at the NATO Chicago Summit in May 2012, at the end of 2014, the United States and NATO completed the transfer of security responsibilities to Afghanistan.

    As of February 2021, there are about 350,000 Afghan security forces, and the international community needs to provide a lot of financial support for its construction. The 2016 NATO Warsaw Summit decided to continue to provide Afghan National Security Forces with the annual financial support of US$1 billion until 2020. In March 2020,

the United States signed a peace agreement with the Taliban, promising to withdraw all military forces in Afghanistan in stages and conditions within the next 14 months. In February 2021, the number of American soldiers in Afghanistan dropped to 2500. On May 1, 2021, the US military in Afghanistan began to withdraw, and it is expected to withdraw completely from the end of August to the beginning of September.



There are a total of 177,789 kilometers of highways throughout Afghanistan, including 4,906 kilometers of national highways and 5,000 kilometers of highways under construction, including Kabul to Mazar-e-Sharif, Herat to Kandahar, Kabul Ring Expressway, and Tokham to Kabul and other highways.

The overall road conditions in Afghanistan are poor. Years of war have caused a large number of roads to be seriously damaged. Afghan vehicles drive on the right side, the same as in China. When driving and encountering traffic control and crowds, you should quickly stay away from detours. A Chinese driver’s license cannot be used locally, and an Afghan driver’s license must be obtained through an exam before driving. The railway mileage in Afghanistan is relatively short, leading to Iran and Uzbekistan respectively.


  There are railways to Iran, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. The earliest railway in Afghanistan was the Kabul-Paghman railway built by Amanullah Khan. In April 1975, Iran promised to provide 2 billion U.S. dollars in loans, of which 1.7 billion was used to build 1,815 kilometers in total length from Iran to Afghanistan. Railways in Rath, Kandahar and Kabul.

  In addition, Afghanistan has a railway located in the northern border area of   Afghanistan, which connects Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Mazar Sharif, 15 kilometers long in Afghanistan.

water transport

The sections of the Amu Darya and Kunduz Rivers on the border between the northern Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan are navigable.

air transport

  As of February 2021, there are 3 airlines in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Aliana Airlines is relatively strong, mainly operating international routes, opening a number of international routes to China, Pakistan, Iran, UAE, India, Turkey, Germany, Russia, Azerbaijan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Tajikistan.

KAM Airlines and SAFI Airlines operate some domestic and international routes. There are 43 airports in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, among which 4 airports are Hamid Karzai International Airport, Herat International Airport, Mazar Sharif International Airport, and Kandahar International Airport



The education level in Afghanistan is backward, teachers are weak, and basic education facilities and funds are lacking. Schools are divided into two types: public and private. Public schools implement completely free compulsory education, with 6 years of primary school, 6 years of middle school, and 4 to 5 years of university. Tuition is free. Private schools are more expensive.

    In the 2019/2020 fiscal year, there are 16,429 primary and secondary schools of various types in Afghanistan, with 9.589 million students, of which 3.686 million are girls. There are 211,500 teachers, including 72,500 women. In terms of higher education, there are a total of 166 universities and research institutions of various types, of which 38 are public and 128 are private; there are about 18,900 teachers, including 2,599 female teachers; 425,000 students, including 114,000 women. Kabul University is the highest institution in the country, with approximately 23,000 students.

People’s livelihood

   The war has caused great damage to the basic living facilities of Afghanistan, roads are damaged, electricity is scarce, prices are rising, and daily necessities are scarce. After the establishment of the Afghan government, with the help of the United Nations and the international community, it vigorously restored basic livelihood facilities, resettled returning Afghan refugees, solved residents’ water and electricity use, increased medical staff training, and restored school education at all levels.

   According to a World Bank report, less than 20% of urban residents in Afghanistan can enjoy tap water supply, which is the lowest country in the world. Basic medical care can only cover 40% of the population, and there is a serious shortage of medical staff, especially the female medical staff. The rate of access to basic medical care for Afghan women is very low.

physical education

    The Afghan Super League is the highest-level football league in Afghanistan. Established in 2006, this is also the country’s first football league and the first large-scale football match since the Soviet invasion in 1979. During the Taliban period, football was even declared as a frivolous and illegal activity against Islamic teachings. After the 2001 Afghanistan War Football is gradually reborn in this land.

   The Afghan national team has never won a gold medal in any international competition. Afghanistan began to participate in the Olympic Games in 1936 to Athens in 2004, without winning an Olympic medal. It wasn’t until the 2008 Beijing Olympics that Taekwondo player Nick Pa won a bronze medal below 58 kg, achieving a breakthrough in Afghanistan’s zero medal.

On August 16, 2021, Afghanistan has confirmed not to participate in the Tokyo Paralympic Games scheduled to open on August 24.

Entry and residence

  Visa Entry: The Afghan Embassy in China usually issues a single entry visa with a validity period of 30 days. For specific matters, please consult the Afghan Embassy in China.

      Naturalization by residence: If you want to stay in Afghanistan for a long time, you must apply for a residence permit visa for six months to one year within 30 days of entering the country, and then you must apply again.

Customs regulations: The Afghan Customs stipulates that foreign currency with a limit of not more than 20,000 US dollars can be carried in and out of the country, and requires a legal source certificate and necessary bank permits; there are no restrictions on legal exchange and remittance; no lapis lazuli and other jade stones are allowed to be carried out of the country; it is strictly forbidden to carry it.

     Alcoholic beverages and animal foods such as pork enter the country. Violation of the above regulations will be punished by relevant laws. There are no clear regulations on the reasonable quantity and variety of personal use items carried by individuals. When entering the country, it is recommended to take the initiative to ask for and fill in the immigration card.

Medical treatment

Afghanistan’s medical and health facilities are seriously inadequate, with a shortage of medical staff. 80% of health centers in all regions lack doctors and medicines, and medical facilities are scarce. There are some public hospitals in big cities such as Kabul, but the level of medical equipment and services is poor. Many locals go to neighboring countries for medical treatment, such as Pakistan, India, and the UAE. France, Germany, India, and other countries, as well as Afghan domestic investors, have private hospitals or clinics in Afghanistan, with varying levels and generally higher fees.

      In the 2019/2020 fiscal year, there are a total of 641 hospitals in Afghanistan, including 181 public hospitals and 460 private hospitals; there are a total of 8082 doctors, including 6351 males and 1731 females. There are 14,511 hospital beds, and the bed ownership rate per 10,000 people is 4.5. In the fiscal year 2019, Afghanistan’s national development budget was approximately US$1.92 billion. Among them, the budget for health expenditure was 210 million US dollars, accounting for about 11%, a year-on-year decrease of 2.4 percentage points.

       Common diseases in Afghanistan are tuberculosis (incidence rate of 0.08%) and malaria (incidence rate of 0.39%). The number of registered AIDS patients is 2,923. A medical facility is seriously inadequate, covering only 60% of the population. According to data released by the Ministry of Public Health of Afghanistan and the World Health Organization, an average of 55 per 1,000 births died before the age of 5, and about 41% of children under 5 were stunted. Only about 58% of the country’s population has access to clean drinking water, and another 19% lack public toilets, compared to 81% in rural areas.

     Afghanistan imports about 80 million U.S. dollars worth of medicines each year, and most of them are imported through illegal channels. The Ministry of Public Health of Afghanistan is planning to establish a national pharmaceutical company to import qualified drugs and prevent vicious competition.

At the same time, the Afghan Ministry of Public Health is also planning to set up drug and food control centers in Kabul, Herat, Balkh, Nangarhar, Khost, Kandahar provinces, and other places to test the quality of drugs and food imported from abroad. There is only one medicine and food control center in Kabul in Afghanistan.


Communication power supply: Afghanistan voltage is 220 volts, 50 Hz, AC two-hole round plug.

The penetration rate of mobile phones in Afghanistan is relatively high and the tariffs are relatively cheap. Most of the mobile phones of Chinese standard can be used in Afghanistan, and most of the big cities have already opened 3G function. Internet operators can provide wireless network cards, but the speed is low and the tariff is expensive.


Afghanistan is one of the least developed countries listed by the United Nations. The level of science and technology is backward as a whole, and there are no national scientific research institutions. There are only junior-level research centers under some government departments, but it is small in scale, scarce in funds, and backward in overall standards. Except for the relatively developed telecommunications industry, there are basically no high-tech industries or commodity import and export inspection and quarantine facilities.


There are 816 radio stations and 331 television stations in Afghanistan. Radio Afghanistan was established in 1925 and broadcasts in 9 languages. The Afghan Television Station (RTV) was established in 1978 and mainly broadcasts in Persian and Pashto. Other major private TV stations include Tolo TV, ATN, ATV, etc.

  There are 824 kinds of newspapers and magazines in Afghanistan, of which about 64% are published in Kabul. There are 3 mainstream newspapers: “Afghanistan Times” (English), “Afghanistan Daily Observatory” (English), and “Anis Daily” (Dali). Others include Head Daily (Pashto), Kabul Times (English), and Cheragh.


Foreign policy

The reconstruction of Afghanistan mainly depends on the support and assistance of Western countries. From 2002 to 2010, Afghanistan received a total of US$55.6 billion in foreign aid. The Algeria government’s diplomacy is centered on seeking aid and actively develops relations with Western countries such as the United States, Germany, Japan, and the European Union.

Afghanistan attaches great importance to developing relations with neighboring countries and participating in regional cooperation. In 2002, Algeria and six neighboring countries including China signed the “Kabul Good-Neighborly Declaration”, “Kabul Good-Neighborly Friendship Declaration” and the “Kabul Good-Neighborly Friendship Declaration” on Encouraging Closer Cooperation in Trade, Transit and Investment Good-neighborly and Friendship Anti-drug Declaration.

  In October 2005, Afghanistan became a member of the Central Asian Regional Economic Cooperation Organization. In November, it established a contact group with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and became a member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation in the same month. In June 2012, it became an observer country of the SCO. Azerbaijan also uses its geographical advantages to strive to become a trade and transportation hub in the region

Foreign relations

Relations with the United States

 In 1934 The two countries established diplomatic relations. After the “September 11” incident, the United States fully led the peace process and economic reconstruction of Afghanistan and provided huge amounts of economic assistance to Afghanistan. The United States has also coordinated with NATO and others to dispatch provincial reconstruction teams (PRT) to Afghanistan.

     In 2005, the U.S. and the U.S. established a strategic partnership and signed a joint declaration, which included the U.S. providing assistance to the U.S. in democratic governance, economic development, and maintaining security. Freedom to carry out appropriate military operations, etc.

         In May 2012, Aramco signed the “Enduring Strategic Partnership Agreement” to make plans for Aramco-U.S. cooperation in the political, economic, and security fields after 2014. The United States granted Afghanistan the status of a “non-NATO major ally” and reiterated that it does not seek to have permanent military facilities in Afghanistan, but will retain a certain military presence in Afghanistan after 2014.

      On September 30, 2014, after President Ghani came to power, the two sides signed the “Bilateral Security and Defense Cooperation Agreement.” In August 2017, the United States announced a new policy on Afghanistan and South Asia, emphasizing that it will no longer set a time limit for the withdrawal of troops from Afghanistan.

      In February 2019, President Trump stated in his State of the Union address that he would gradually reduce the number of troops stationed in Afghanistan in accordance with the negotiation process. In November, President Trump visited Afghanistan and met with President Ghani.

On February 29, 2020, the United States and the Taliban signed a peace agreement in Qatar, laying the foundation for the U.S. withdrawal from Afghanistan. In March, U.S. Secretary of State Pompeo coordinated the relationship between President Ghani and the former CEO of Abdullah to no avail. He announced a reduction of US$1 billion in aid to Afghanistan this year and a further reduction of US$1 billion in 2021.

Relations with Pakistan

   Afghanistan and Pakistan have close ties, and Pakistan has accepted a large number of Afghan refugees. However, the two countries have big differences on issues such as borders and counter-terrorism. In recent years, bilateral relations have been vulnerable to emergencies and fluctuated. Both sides have expressed their willingness to actively promote the improvement of bilateral relations on many occasions.

     In September 2014, Pakistani President Hussein attended the inauguration of President Ghani. In November, President Ghani visited Pakistan. In October 2017, Bajwa, Chief of Staff of the Pakistan Army, visited Afghanistan and proposed the “A-Pak Peace and Solidarity Action Plan (APAPPS).” In April 2018, then Pakistani Prime Minister Abasi visited Afghanistan.

     In May, after four rounds of consultations, Abba reached an agreement on the AAPPPS text and agreed to establish and start six working groups as soon as possible: political and diplomatic, economic, refugee, military, intelligence, and mechanism review, to promote bilateral cooperation and negotiate to resolve differences. President Ghani visited Pakistan in June 2019, and Prime Minister Imran Khan of Pakistan visited Afghanistan in November 2020.

Relations with India

     The Afghan government attaches great importance to developing relations with India, and the two countries have maintained close exchanges of high-level contacts. In October 2011, the two countries established a strategic partnership. India has so far provided about 3 billion U.S.

   dollars in aid to Afghanistan. India has 1 embassy and 4 consulates in Afghanistan. From 2006 to 2013, President Karzai visited India 8 times, and the two sides reached a consensus on India’s aid to Afghanistan in reconstruction, strengthening anti-terrorism cooperation, and promoting economic and trade exchanges and regional cooperation. In December 2015 and June 2016, Indian Prime Minister Modi visited Afghanistan twice. In September 2016 and October 2017, President Ghani visited India twice.

In September 2018, President Ghani and Chief Executive Abdullah visited India successively.

Relations with Russia

   During the Taliban rule, Russia supported the anti-Thailand alliance. After the establishment of the new Afghan government, Russia resumed relations with Afghanistan. Russia supports the peaceful reconstruction of Afghanistan, has provided 700 million U.S. dollars in aid to Afghanistan, and canceled U.S. dollars in debt owed by Afghanistan. Russia emphasized that the United Nations should play a leading role in the Arab problem and pay attention to the Arab drug problem.

Relations with Iran

   Iran is an important neighboring country in western Afghanistan. The two countries have profound historical, cultural, religious, and ethnic origins and connections. During the Afghan war, Iraq accepted more than 2 million Afghan refugees. Since the fall of the Taliban regime, Iraq has actively participated in the reconstruction of Afghanistan and has pledged to provide $560 million in free aid. The Arab-Iranian relationship continues to develop.

     The two sides believe that exchanges in the fields of economy, trade, culture, and education should be strengthened, with a focus on cooperation in combating drug smuggling.  In December 2016, Russia held Russia-China-Pakistan consultations on Afghanistan in Moscow. In February and April 2017, Russia held consultations on Afghanistan in Moscow, China, Pakistan, India, and Iran. Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and other regional countries participated.

Relationship with the SCO

     Since 2004, the Afghan President and Vice President have attended Shanghai Cooperation Organization summits and prime ministers’ meetings as guests of the host country on many occasions. In November 2005, Afghanistan established a contact group with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Since 2009, the SCO has held five consultations at the deputy foreign minister-level on the Afghanistan issue and an international conference on Afghanistan.

     In June 2012, Afghanistan officially became an observer country of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.  In October 2017, the first deputy foreign minister-level meeting of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization-Afghanistan Liaison Group was held in Moscow. In May 2018, a new round of the “Shanghai Cooperation Organization-Afghanistan Liaison Group” deputy foreign minister-level meeting was held in Beijing.

Relations with China

    On January 20, 1955, China and Afghanistan established diplomatic relations. In January 1957, Premier Zhou Enlai and Vice Premier He Long visited Afghanistan, which was the first visit by a Chinese leader in the history of Sino-Arab relations. The two countries signed a treaty of friendship and non-aggression in 1960 and signed a border treaty in 1963. The China-Arab border is 92.45 kilometers long.

The beggar country lying on the “Golden Mountain”, Afghanistan
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       After the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Arab countries in 1955, the economic and trade relations between the two countries have developed initially. In 1957, the two parties signed a trade exchange and payment agreement.

    In April 1972, the Sino-Arab Exchange Protocol was signed. During the war in Afghanistan, the economic and trade exchanges and economic and technological cooperation between the two countries were severely affected. After the establishment of the new Afghan government, economic and trade activities between the two countries have gradually become active. In 2013, the bilateral trade volume was 338 million U.S. dollars.

     As of 2013, China’s economic cooperation contracts in Afghanistan totaled 858 million U.S. dollars and completed a total turnover of approximately 983 million U.S. dollars, mainly related to infrastructure fields such as communications and highway construction.

     A small number of foreign students from Afghanistan are studying in China. In January 2008, the first Confucius Institute in Afghanistan was established at Kabul University. During President Karzai’s visit to China in March 2010, China announced that starting from 2011, it will provide 50 government scholarships to Afghanistan each year. In 2008, China established a Confucius Institute at Kabul University. In 2013, Afghan citizens visited China 10,674 times, and mainland Chinese residents visited Afghanistan 867 times.

      In February 2014, President Xi Jinping attended the Sochi to meet with President Hamid Karzai. Foreign Minister Wang Yi visited Afghanistan at the end of February. The Chinese side set forth its policy objectives towards Afghanistan, hoping to see a united, stable, developing, and friendly Afghanistan, and is willing to play a constructive role in helping Afghanistan achieve a smooth transition and promote reconciliation. In May, Afghan President Karzai came to China to attend the CICA Summit, and President Xi Jinping met with him.

     In September, President Xi Jinping’s special envoy and Minister of Human Resources and Social Security Yin Weimin attended the inauguration of Afghanistan’s new President Ghani. In October, Afghan President Ghani paid a state visit to China. President Xi Jinping, Premier Li Keqiang, and Chairman Zhang Dejiang held talks and meetings with them respectively. The two sides issued the “China-Arab States Joint Statement on Deepening Strategic Cooperative Partnership” and signed other economic and trade cooperation documents.

     During his stay in Beijing, Premier Li Keqiang and President Ghani also attended the Fourth Foreign Ministers’ Meeting of the Istanbul Process on Afghanistan. In November, State Councilor and Minister of Public Security Guo Shengkun visited Afghanistan. In December, Premier Li Keqiang met with Afghan Chief Executive Abdullah during his attendance at the Shanghai Cooperation Prime Ministers’ Meeting in Astana.

    From January to November 2015, the bilateral trade volume was US$330 million, a year-on-year decrease of 9.28%. Among them, China’s export value is 322 million U.S. dollars; import value is 11 million U.S. dollars. China’s exports to Afghanistan are mainly machinery and electronics, hardware, textiles, daily necessities, and light industries. Imported goods from Afghanistan are mainly cows and sheepskins.

     In November 2011, China announced that it would give zero-tariff treatment to 97% of the taxable products of 33 least developed countries, including Afghanistan. In 2017, the bilateral trade volume between China and Afghanistan was US$544 million, a year-on-year increase of 24.9%, of which China’s export volume was US$430 million.

    In June 2017, President Xi Jinping met with President Ghani during his attendance at the Astana summit of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. In December, Premier Li Keqiang met with Abdullah, Chief Executive Officer of Afghanistan, during his attendance at the SCO Prime Ministers’ Meeting in Sochi. In March, the Chairman of the Algerian House of Elders, Muslim Yar, came to China to attend the Boao Forum and met with Vice Premier Zhang Gaoli.

     In September, Muhammad Khan, the first deputy chief executive of Afghanistan, came to China to attend the 2017 China-Arab States Expo. Zhang Ping, vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, met with him. In the same month, Ibrahimi, Speaker of the People’s Court of Afghanistan, came to China to attend the 2017 Eurasian Economic Forum and met with Vice Premier Wang Yang.

    In June 2018, President Xi Jinping met with President Ghani who came to China to attend the SCO summit in Qingdao. In the same month, Mukhazik, the second deputy chief executive of Afghanistan, came to China to attend the 5th South China Expo and met with Vice Premier Hu Chunhua. In August, President Muslim Yar of the Presbyterian House of the Algerian Parliament came to China to attend the 6th Asia-Europe Expo.

    Vice Premier Hu Chunhua met with him. In September, the second Vice President of Algeria Denish came to China to attend the 3rd Dunhuang Cultural Fair, and Vice Premier Sun Chunlan met with him. In October, Premier Li Keqiang met with Abdullah, Chief Executive Officer of Afghanistan, during his attendance at the SCO Prime Ministers’ Meeting in Dushanbe. 

  • Chinese Ambassador to Afghanistan
  • Wang Yu. Location: Sardar Shah Mahmoud Ghazi Wat, Kabul, Afghanistan.
  • Afghan Ambassador to China

Said Habiburahman Husinpur (S. Habiburahman Husinpur) . Location: No. 8 Dongzhimenwai Street, Chaoyang District, Beijing.

Relations with the United Nations

   The United Nations has played an important role in promoting the peace process in Afghanistan. In December 2001, the United Nations presided over the launch of the “Bonn Process” and dispatched the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to Afghanistan to help maintain law and order.

   In March 2002, the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) was established to help the Afghan government maintain stability, protect human rights, and promote social and economic development. The United Nations has also actively promoted the international community to hold many international conferences on aid to Afghanistan.


Tourist attraction

Herat Fifth Mosque

The Herat Fifth Mosque is popularly known as the Jami Mosque by the locals. It is located in Herat, the capital of Herat Province in northwestern Afghanistan. Built-in the 14th century, the Friday Mosque is the largest mosque in Afghanistan and one of the largest in the world. It covers an area of   46,000 square meters and can accommodate 80,000 people to pray at the same time.

Mausoleum of Hazrat Ali

   The Mausoleum of Hazrat Ali is usually called the Blue Mosque. It is located in Mazar-i-Sharif, the capital of Balkh Province, Afghanistan. It is a well-known mosque. One of the reasons why the Mausoleum of Hazrat Ali is famous is because some Afghans say Ali’s remains are buried here. Ali bin Abi Talib is the founder of Islam and the cousin and son-in-law of the prophet Muhammad, and his city, Mazar-e-Sharif, means “the mausoleum of nobles.”

Kabul Zoo

   The Kabul Zoo is located on the bank of the Kabul River. It was opened in 1967. At the beginning of its establishment, the park mainly lived with Afghan animals. It is a rare tourist and leisure “resort” in Afghanistan, and it has attracted the attention of citizens and the media.

safety precaution

    Public security situation: Car bombs, human body bombs, rockets, and other terrorist attacks often occur in various parts of Afghanistan; there have also been attacks and kidnappings of Chinese people.

Natural disasters: The natural disasters in Afghanistan are mainly droughts, dust, and earthquakes, and earthquakes are frequent. There is almost no rain throughout the year from April to November, with a small amount of rain and snow in winter; sandy and dusty weather in spring and autumn.

   Food hygiene: It is recommended that you bring necessary medicines when you travel to Afghanistan to deal with possible diarrhea and fever. If you are not used to it, eat less raw and cold food and drink boiled or bottled water as much as possible.

source of information.



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