El Salvador was originally the place where Indians lived. It became a Spanish colony in 1524; declared independence on September 15, 1821, and was forcibly incorporated into the Mexican First Empire in 1822; joined the Central American Federation after the collapse of the empire in 1823; the federation was disintegrated in 1838; the republic was established on February 18, 1841, In 1980, an armed conflict broke out in El Salvador. In 1992, the opposing parties signed a peace agreement to end the 12-year civil war.
El Salvador’s domestic economy is dominated by agriculture, mainly producing coffee beans and cotton, and its industrial foundation is weak. El Salvador is a low- and middle-income country in the world. Affected by the 2008 international economic and financial crisis, its economic growth has been slow; the country’s official language is Spanish, and the indigenous language is Nahuatl.
There are many gangs in El Salvador. In January 2015, the president of the country announced a vigorous crackdown on street gangs, but the country still had 3,400 murders between January and July.
[Republic of El Salvador (Spanish: República de El Salvador; English: The Republic of El Salvador), referred to as El Salvador . It is located on the Central American coast north of the country, but also the Zhong Meizhou most densely populated countries. El Salvador is adjacent to the Pacific Ocean, with a land area of 20,720 square kilometers and 14 provinces. when 2017 the population was 6.378 million.]
The area of El Salvador was originally inhabited by the Mayan Indians. It became a Spanish colony in 1524. Independence was declared on September 15, 1821, and later became part of the Mexican Empire.
After the empire was collapsed in 1823, El Salvador joined with the Central American Federation. the republic was announced on February 18, 1841. After the dissolution of the Confederation in 1838, Beginning in the 1930s, soldiers have staged many coups and the political situation has been turbulent for a long time.
In 1931, Martinez served as Vice President and Secretary of Defense. At that time, the Great Depression, political corruption, and the influence of the Communist Party of El Salvador expanded dramatically. Arturo Araujo was forced to step down and nominate Martinez as the next president.
In January 1932, local elections began. A large number of communist candidates were elected, but they were not recognized by the government. The Communist Party of El Salvador decided to launch a riot on the 22nd, but Martinez found out that it immediately ordered the arrest of Communist leader Farabendo Marti. The peasants who had lost their leader armed with machetes launched a riot as scheduled, but failed under the suppression of the government forces. The government forces immediately retaliated and slaughtered more than 30,000 rebel farmers.
For the 13 years after 1932, El Salvador was ruled by Martinez. After the outbreak of the Pacific War in 1941, El Salvador joined the anti-Axis camp of Britain and the United States. In April 1944, due to economic paralysis, intellectuals and students launched a national general strike. In May 1945, Martinez stepped down and went to exile in Guatemala before moving to live in Honduras.
In 1979, the reformist revolutionary military government came to power. Neither the extreme right nor the extreme left was satisfied with this government. In 1980, a civil war burst in El Salvador. On January 16, 1992, the Marti Front and the government signed the “Peace Agreement”, and El Salvador ended its 12-year civil war.
In March 2014, El Salvador held the second round of voting in the presidential election. The candidate of the Ruling Marti Front and Vice President Salvador Sanchez Salen won with 50.11% of the vote and was sworn in on June 1 for a five-year term. On June 1, 2019, El Salvador’s elected President Naib Buckley was sworn in in the capital, San Salvador.
El Salvador is located in the northern part of Central America, with Honduras in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the south, Guatemala in the west and northwest, and Fonseca Bay in the Pacific Ocean in the east. It covers an area of 20,720 square kilometers and the center is located at 13.5°N latitude and 88.55°W longitude.
The d omestic terrain in El Salvador is dominated by volcanoes, mountains, and plateaus. It is called “the country of volcanoes”. The Santa Ana active volcano in the territory is 2,385 meters above sea level, which is the highest peak in the country; the northern part of the country is the Lempa Valley, and the south is a narrow coast. Plain.
The main mineral resources in El Salvador are gold, silver, copper, iron, petroleum, coal, zinc, lead, mercury, sulfur, etc.
As of 2001, El Salvador’s domestic renewable water resources totaled 25.2 cubic kilometers.
As of 2010, the total forest area of El Salvador is 2,870 square kilometers, and the forest coverage rate is 13.9%.
El Salvador is divided into 14 provinces, each of which consists of 262 cities; the provinces are: Ahuachapan, Sonsonate, Santa Ana, La Libertad, San Salvador, Chalatnango, and Cuz Cattelan, La Paz, San Vicente Cabañas , Usulután , San Miguel , Morazan , La Union
Introduction to the Capital
San Salvador has an area of 72.25 square kilometers and a population of 2.06 million. The average temperature of the hottest month (May) is 19～33℃, and the average temperature of the coldest month (December) is 16～32℃.
Salvador means “Savior” in Spanish and is named after Columbus’s discovery of the American continent.
The national flag of El Salvador was used in 1822, was revoked in 1865, restored in 1912, and was officially confirmed as the national flag in the 1972 Constitution. The national flag is rectangular with a ratio of length to width of 335:189. From top to bottom, the flat surface is formed by connecting three parallel horizontal rectangles of blue, white, and blue, and the national emblem is painted in the center of the white part. Because El Salvador was a member of the former Central American Federation, its flag color is the same as that of the former Central American Federation flag. Blue symbolizes the blue sky and ocean, and white symbolizes peace.
The national emblem of El Salvador was inaugurated on September 15, 1912. The national emblem is an equilateral triangle. The three yellow lines of the triangle represent equality, truth, and justice. Five volcanoes rise from the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean, symbolizing the five countries of Central America. The “Pole of Freedom” and the red “Cap of Freedom” stand high on the top of the mountain, radiating the light of freedom and liberation. “September 15, 1821” in Golden Light is the day of independence for El Salvador.
The rainbow in the sky overflows with joy and hope. Five Central American federal flags surround the national emblem, expressing El Salvador’s desire to reorganize the federation. At the bottom is a yellow ribbon with the words “God, Unity, Freedom” written in Spanish on it. The green laurel branches surround the triangle to make the national emblem round. The golden Spanish word on the outer ring is written with the name of the country “The Republic of El Salvador in Central America”.
“Proudly salute our motherland”
The lyrics of the Salvadoran national anthem were written by military officer Juan José Cañtilde in 1856, and the Italian Juan Aberle composed it in 1879, which officially became the national anthem of Salvador in 1879.
6.421 million (2018). Indo-European people accounted for 86%, European descent accounted for 13%, and Indians accounted for 1%.
El Salvador implements a representative democratic republic with the separation of powers. The president and vice president are directly elected throughout the country and cannot be re-elected. Judicial power is exercised by the Supreme Court and the General Procuratorate.
The current government was formed in June 2019. The main cabinet members are: Vice President Félix Ulloa (Félix Ulloa), Minister of Foreign Affairs Alejandra Hill (female, Alexandra Hill), Minister of Interior and Land Development Mario Durán (Mario Durán) , Minister of Justice and Public Security Rogelio Rivas (Rogelio Rivas), Minister of Finance Nelson Fuentes (Nelson Fuentes), Minister of Economy Maria Ruiza Ayem (female, María Luisa) Hayem), Minister of Education Karla Anania (female, Karla Hananía), Minister of Defense René Francis Merino (René Francis Merino), Minister of Labor and Social Security Oscar Rolando Castro (Óscar Rolando Castro),
Minister of Agriculture and Livestock (Pablo Anliker), Minister of Health Ana Orellana Bendek (female, Ana Orellana Bendek), Public Works, Transport, Housing and Urban Minister of Development Edgar Romero Rodríguez (Edgar Romero Rodríguez), Minister of Environment and Natural Resources Fernando López (Fernando López), Minister of Tourism Morena Valdez (female, Morena Valdez), Culture Minister Suezi Gallejas (female, Suecy Callejas), Housing Minister Michelle Sol (female, Michelle Sol), Regional Development Minister Maria Ophelia Navalette (female, María Ofelia Navarrete)
The Constitution of El Salvador came into effect on December 23, 1983. The Constitution describes the country’s political system, presidential election methods, legislation, and the exercise of judicial power; it specifically stipulates that presidential candidates can be elected if they get in the first round more than 50% of votes, The second round of voting will be held between the top two candidates with the most votes.
The current constitution entered into force on December 23, 1983. It stipulates that the country implements a representative democratic republic with the separation of powers. The president shall be the head of state and the head of government, who shall be directly elected and shall not be re-elected
The National Assembly adopts a unicameral system, with a total of 84 members, of which 64 are distributed in proportion to the population of each province, and the remaining 20 are not divided into provinces and are determined by the number of votes. The term of office is 3 years and can be re-elected. The current parliament was established in May 2018 and will serve until April 2021. Among them, the Marti Front has 23 seats, the Nationalist Republican League has 37 seats, the National Unity Grand Coalition has 11 seats, the National Reconciliation Party has 8 seats, and the other parties have 5 seats. The current speaker is Norman Quijano (Norman Quijano), a member of the Nationalist Republican Union, who will serve until October 2019.
The current government was formed in June 2014. The main cabinet members are: President Naib Bukley , Vice President Oscar Ortiz, Foreign Minister Carlos Castaneda, Finance Minister Nelson · Fuentes (Nelson Fuentes), Minister of Economy Luz Estrella Rodriguez (female, Luz Estrella Rodriguez), Minister of Defense David Munguía Payés (David Munguía Payés) ), Minister of the Interior Ramón Aristides Valencia (Ramón Aristides Valencia),
Minister of Justice and Public Safety Ernesto Ramírez Landaverde (Ernesto Ramírez Landaverde), Labor and Social Security Minister Sandra Edibel Guevara Pérez (female, Sandra Edibel Guevara Pérez), Minister of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Orestes Ortez, Minister of Public Health Biole Tower Menjívar (female, Violeta Menjívar), Minister of Public Works, Transport, Housing and Urban Development Gerson Martínez (Gerson Martínez), Minister of Environment and Natural Resources Lina Pohl (female, Lina Pohl) , Tourism Minister José Napoleón Duarte (José Napoleón Duarte), Education Minister Carlos Canjura (Carlos Canjura).
Judicial power is exercised by the Supreme Court, the General Procuratorate, etc. The Supreme Court is composed of 15 judges (including the president), elected by the parliament for a term of 9 years, and 1/3 of them are re-elected every 3 years. The term of office of the President of the Supreme Court is 5 years, and he can be re-elected. The current dean, Oscar Armando Pineda Navas (Oscar Armando Pineda Navas), took office in August 2014. The Attorney General is elected by the Parliament for a term of 3 years and can be re-elected. The current Attorney General Sonia Elizabeth Cortéz de Madriz (female, Sonia Elizabeth Cortéz de Madriz), took office in January 2010 and was re-elected twice in 2013 and 2016.
( 1) Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional: the ruling party. In October 1980, the “Farabendo Marti People’s Liberation Army”, the “National Resistance Armed Forces”, the “People’s Revolutionary Army”, the Central American Labor Revolutionary Party, and the Communist Party of El Salvador jointly formed an anti-government armed front. In January 1992, the Front and the government signed the “Peace Agreement”, and in December it became a legal political party.
In June 1995, the various parties within the front unified the formation of the “Farabendo Marti National Liberation Front” party. In 1994, 1999, and 2004, he failed to participate in the general elections three times, but in 2009 and 2014 the party’s candidates Funes and Sanchez won the general elections. There are about 120,000 party members. General Secretary Medardo González (Medardo González), elected in November 2004.
(2) Nationalist Republican Union (Alianza Republicana Nacionalista): The main opposition party. It was founded by Roberto D´Abuisson in September 1981 and officially registered in January 1982. He was in power from 1989 to 2009. It currently holds a majority in the parliament. Party Chairman Mauricio Interiano (Mauricio Interiano).
(3) The Grand Alliance of National Unity (GANA): The party was founded in 2010. Split from the Nationalist Republican Union. It claims to be a center-left party, but its political tone is relatively conservative and close to the right. Cooperated with the Marti Front in Parliament many times. It is now the third-largest party group in the parliament. Party Chairman Jose Rovira
National Reconciliation Party (PCN): Right-wing political party. The party was founded in 1961. He was in power for four consecutive times from 1962 to 1979 and was closely related to the military. After 1979, the influence declined. It is now the fourth largest party group in the parliament. Party Chairman Manuel Rodriguez.
Salvador Sanchez Salen: President. Born on June 18, 1944 in Quesatepec, El Salvador. In 1970, he participated in the creation of El Salvador’s first left-wing armed force-the Farabendo Marti People’s Liberation Army. In April 1983, he served as the general secretary of the organization. Since then, the organization has united with other left-wing political and military groups in Samoa to form the Marti Front. In 1992, he participated in the signing of the “Peace Agreement” which marked the end of the civil war in Saskatchewan.
From 1994 to 1997, and from 2001 to 2004, he served as the general coordinator of the Marti Front twice and was elected as a member of Parliament for three consecutive terms from 2000 to 2009. Among them, he was the leader of the Marti Front parliamentary group from 2006 to 2008. From 2009 to 2014, he served as Vice President and Minister of Education. In March 2014, he was elected president as a candidate of the Marti Front and took office on June 1 for a term of 5 years
Mainly agriculture, the industrial foundation is weak. In recent years, affected by the international economic and financial crises, the economic growth of Samoa has been slow.
The main economic data in 2018 are as follows:
- GDP: 26.06 billion US dollars
- GDP per capita: US$3,920
- GDP growth rate: 2.5%
- Inflation rate: 1.1%
- Unemployment rate: 6.3% 
- US dollar, 1 US dollar ≈ 6.84 RMB
Foreign trade accounts for more than half of GDP. In 2018, the total import and export volume of Samoa was 17.63 billion U.S. dollars, of which imports were 11.726 billion U.S. dollars and exports were 5.904 billion U.S. dollars, an increase of 7.8%, 10.7%, and 2.5% respectively year-on-year. Mainly export coffee, cotton, cane sugar, shrimp, textiles, etc. The main export target countries are the United States, Honduras, Guatemala, Costa Rica; the main import raw materials, fuels, industrial products, daily consumer goods, the main import source countries are the United States and China, Guatemala, Mexico.
List of festivals in El Salvador
El Salvador was under Spanish colonial rule in history, so the official language of the country is Spanish (español). Spanish is abbreviated as Spanish and belongs to the Western branch of the Romance language family of the Indo-European language family. It is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. In addition, the country also has an indigenous language: Nahua.
The Salvadoran diet was developed on the basis of Spanish and Indian cooking. Urban residents mainly eat western food. The staple food is rice, beans, corn, milk, fruit, etc. The popular beverages in urban and rural areas are cola, beer, coffee, etc.
More than 75% of residents believe in Catholicism.
The Salvadoran armed forces include the army, air force, and navy. In 1840, the Salvadoran armed forces withdrew from the Central American Federation, participated in the suppression of the Communist rebellion in 1931, and participated in the football war in Honduras in 1969; during the civil war, the Atlacatl battalion, Salvador’s most elite force, involved the massacre in the village of Mozote, El Salvador, in 1992 After the civil war, the army was reduced by more than half.
In 2009, Salvador’s military expenditure accounted for 0.6% of GDP. In 2010, the total number of Salvador’s domestic troops was 32,500. Among the enlistment of the appropriate age, 1,449,214 were men and 1,611,248 women; the number of eligible men was 1,079,038 men and 1,373,368 women. In 2011, the country’s military expenditures were US$25 million.
Soldiers participate in the celebration of Independence Day in San Salvador, the capital of El Salvador, on September 15, 2019. El Salvador held an event on the 15th to celebrate Independence Day.
In 1996, El Salvador had 334,000 cars and 78,000 passenger trucks; in 2000, the country’s road length was 10,886 kilometers (2,827 kilometers of paved roads, and 8,059 kilometers of planned roads); in 2003, the country’s road mileage The total length is 12,164 kilometers; in 2007, the number of motor vehicles in the country was 94 vehicles per thousand people.
In 1996, the freight volume of El Salvador’s railway was 87,000 tons; in 2008, the total length of the country’s railway was 283 kilometers.
El Salvador International Airport is located in Comalapa, 40 kilometers south of the capital. El Salvador Airlines has international routes to Central American countries, Mexico City, Miami, and Los Angeles. In 2007, the country’s air passenger traffic was 2,536,820 passengers per year, and the air cargo volume was 22 million tons per year; in 2012, El Salvador had 65 airports nationwide.
The main ports of El Salvador are the Akahutra and Kutuk ports. Among them, the Akahutra port is one of the important ports in Central America, with a throughput of 2.5 million tons in 2003.
El Salvador implements nine-year compulsory education, with 6 years of primary school and 3 years of secondary school. In 1995, the country’s education budget was 1.74 billion colonies, accounting for 14.19% of the national budget; in 1998, the literacy rate of residents was about 77.8%. Domestic universities mainly include the University of San Salvador and the University of Central America. In 2008, Salvador’s education expenditure accounted for 3.6% of GDP.
In 2008, the density of doctors in El Salvador was 1.596 per thousand people; in 2009, Salvador’s medical expenditure accounted for 3.9% of GDP, the density of hospital beds was 1.1 per thousand people, and the adult prevalence rate of AIDS was 0.8%.
As of 2003, there are five newspapers in El Salvador. The main newspapers and periodicals are: “News Photo”, “Today”, and “Le Monde”; there are about 75 commercial radio stations and 6 TV stations in the country, of which 2 are national TV stations.
In 2011, El Salvador had 950,000 fixed telephones and 7.837 million mobile phones; in 2009, the total number of Internet hosts in the country was 24,07; in 2012, the total number of Internet hosts in the country was 24,700.
Law and order
In 2015, El Salvador’s public security was in chaos. In the first half of 2015 alone, the number of homicides in El Salvador increased by 55.7% compared with the same period in 2014. According to official data, the number of deaths in the capital city of San Salvador in June alone reached 677, even More than in Iraq in the midst of war. In January 2015, the President of El Salvador announced a vigorous crackdown on street gangs, but there were still 3,400 murders in the country between January and July 2015.
Emphasis on safeguarding national sovereignty and territorial integrity; respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; self-determination of peoples of all countries and non-interference in each other’s internal affairs; peaceful settlement of disputes in accordance with international law; seeking and maintaining international peace and security; not threatening the use of force; support on the basis of equality, justice, and cooperation To establish a new international order and advocate the democratization of international relations.
Attach importance to the development of traditional relations with the United States and its neighbors in Central America, and actively participate in the process of regional integration in Central America. In January 2017, Sa took over as the rotating presidency of the Community of Latin American and the Caribbean States.
El Salvador is one of the birthplaces of ancient Maya culture. The main tourist attractions of the country include volcanoes, plateau lakes, and beaches along the Pacific Ocean. In 1993, the country received 267,000 foreign tourists.