If you are interested in traveling to Central America, safety maybe your top concern. Most people I met were curious about what the area had to offer but stayed away due to fear of violence and crime. The area has a recent history of conflict and violence. It is also a place of violence full of murderers and drug dealers. But the civil war is over, and if you pay attention, you will notice that 99% of travelers and foreigners are not targeted by gangs.
If you stop being paranoid and give it a fair chance, you will notice that most countries in Central America are safer than ever. Indeed, some countries are safer than others. Some parts of each country are safer (and less) than others.
Although various Central American travel guides, American consulates, and the term “street” are often different, they all believe that a certain level of street intelligence is the key to maintaining Central America’s security. Most of it comes down to common sense. If you avoid situations that might put you in obvious danger-such as walking alone in a cunning neighborhood late at night-this possibility is definitely in your favor.
The Republic of Panama is the southernmost country in Central America, with a total area of 75,517 square kilometers and its capital, Panama City. In 1501, Panama became a Spanish colony. Independence was declared on December 28, 1821, and joined the Republic of Greater Colombia. After the dissolution of Greater Colombia in 1831, it became a province of New Granada. Independence in 1903, the Republic of Panama was established.
The Panama Canal, which connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in the center of Panama, has an important strategic position and is the dividing line between South America and North America. On December 31, 1999, the United States returned all the land, buildings, infrastructure, and management rights of the Panama Canal to Panama. Given its important geographical location, the focus of Panama’s economy is the service industry, with finance, trade, and tourism as the mainstay.
Since the establishment and Panama trade and both the United States has an important relationship, Panama from 1907 started using the US dollar as currency, the national currency is Balboa, the dollar equivalent at the same time and in the territory is the world’s first outside the US Countries that use the U.S. dollar as legal tender.
- English name The Republic of Panama ，
- Short name Panama
- Continent North America
- Capital Panama City (Ciudad de Panamá)
- main city Cologne, David, Santiago, etc.
- National Day November 3, 1903
- National anthem ” Ode to the Isthmus ”
- country code PAN
- official language Spanish
- Currency U.S. dollar, Balboa
- Time zone UTC-5
- political system Presidential republic
- National leader President: Laurent no Cortizo Cohen
- Population 4.07 million (2017)
- Population density 54.3 people/km2 (2016)
- Main ethnic group Indo-European, African, European, Chinese, Indian
- Main religion Catholic
- National Land area 75,500 square kilometers
- Water area rate of 2.7%
- GDP total 65.055 billion US dollars (2018, international exchange rate)
- GDP per capita 15575 USD (2018, international exchange rate)
- International telephone area code+507
- International domain name abbreviation.pa
- Road traffic Drive right
- Largest canal Panama Cana ˇ
- World Heritage Coiba
- Main universities the University of Panama, University of Santa Maria, etc.
- Main holiday Independence Day (November 3)
- Economic growth rate 5.4% (2017/2018 fiscal year)
- Inflation rate0.88% (2017/2018 fiscal year) unemployment rate6% (2017)
History of Panama
The Isthmus of Panama was originally the Ministry of Chibucha, Caribbean, and other Indians Off settlements. In 1501, Panama became a Spanish colony and belonged to the Governorate of New Granada. In 1821, Panama became independent and became part of the Greater Colombia Republic.
In 1830, after the disintegration of the Greater Colombia Republic, it became a province of the Republic of New Granada (later called Colombia).
In 1903, after defeating Britain and France, the United States signed a treaty with the Colombian government to build and lease the canal by the United States. The Colombian Parliament refused to ratify it. On November 3, 1903, US troops landed in Panama, instigating Panama to separate from Colombia and establish the Republic of Panama. On November 18th, the United States obtained the permanent monopoly right to construct and operate the canal and the permanent right to use, occupy, and control the canal area.
And a canal was dug in the beehive area in central Panama, so the Canal Zone became a “country within a country “in Panama. During the Second World War, the United States forcibly leased 134 military bases in Panama, 1947 Part of it will be returned one after another. In September 1977, Pakistan and the United States signed the Panama Canal Treaty (also known as the Torrijos-Carter Treaty).
In the Panamanian general election in May 1989, both the ruling party and the opposition party declared victory, and the result of the election was invalid. With the mediation of the Organization of American States, Rodriguez became interim president on August 31. On December 15, Noriega, who opposed the US occupation, was appointed as the head of government. On the 20th, the US military invaded Panama. On the 21st, the former opposition presidential candidate Ndala, who was asylum by the United States, was sworn in as president at a US military base.
In January 1990, Noriega surrendered to the US military and was subsequently taken to the US for trial. On October 4, 1994, the Pakistani Parliament passed a draft constitutional amendment, stipulating the abolition of the army and the establishment of a police force. On December 31, 1999, Panama regained its sovereignty over the canal.
October 28, 2015, the 70th session of the United Nations Taikuai reelection UN Human Rights Council member, Panama successfully elected for a term from 2016 to 2018. On December 5, the European Union announced that Panama was included in the blacklist of tax havens. On July 1, 2019, Panamanian President-elect Cortizo was formally sworn in in the capital Panama City, starting a five-year term in power.
Natural environment – Regional location
The Republic of Panama is on the Isthmus of Panama in Central America, bordering Colombia in the east and the Pacific Ocean in the south.
It borders Costa Rica to the west and the Caribbean Sea to the north. The country connecting North America and South America is S-shaped. The Panama Canal connects the Atlantic and Pacific from north to south, and has the name “Bridge of the World”. It has a 75,517 square kilometers area. 772 kilometers in length, the width of 60 to 177 kilometers. It has 2988 kilometers long coastline and 555 kilometers long land boundary In latitude and longitude, Panama is between 7° and 10° north latitude, and between 77° and 83° west longitude.
The terrain of the Republic of Panama is undulating, with ravines crisscrossing, and except for the north and south coastal plains, it is mostly mountainous.
The Republic of Panama is close to the equator and has a tropical maritime climate, humid during the day and cool at night, with an average annual temperature of 23-27°C. The year is divided into two seasons: drought and rain, with an average annual rainfall of 1500-2500 mm.
There are more than 400 rivers in the Republic of Panama, the larger ones are the Tuila River, the Chepo River, and the Chagres River.
Land use in the Republic of Panama: 8.9% of arable land, 20.0% of permanent pasture, 43.0% of forest and woodland, and 28.1% of others; 0.6 acres of arable land per capita.
The Republic of Panama is rich in mineral resources, but not much is mined and the scale of mines is also small. The main minerals are gold, silver, copper, iron, mercury, bauxite, manganese, salt, and petroleum. The reserves of copper, salt, and bauxite are relatively large. As of 2013, Panama’s copper ore reserves exceeded 200 million tons, ranking fourth in the world. The proven copper reserves can be exploited for 50 years
The Republic of Panama is rich in forest resources, and trees, and more, many of them peach heartwood, cedar, teak, mahogany, cedar, and other valuable timber, the eastern forest area of Dalian Province, the most widely distributed, but due to lack of market and based on the defense and protection of the natural environment, etc. The reason is not fully developed. According to FAO estimates in 2010, Panama’s forest area is 4.29 million hectares, accounting for 57% of the land area.
Administrative divisions of Panama
As of 2017, the Republic of Panama is divided into 10 provinces and 5 Indian residential areas, with counties (cities) under the provinces and districts under the counties (cities).
Panama City (Panama City), Panama City is on the peninsula near the mouth of the Pacific coast of the Panama Canal. The city faces Panama Bay, backed by the Ankang Valley, and is picturesque. Originally an Indian fishing village, the old city was built in 1519. After Panama declared independence from Colombia in 1903, Panama City became the capital.
The Panamanian flag was inaugurated on November 3, 1904. The flag is rectangular and has an aspect ratio of 3:2. The flag surface is composed of four rectangles in white, red, and blue. White symbolizes peace; red and blue respectively represent the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party of former Panama, and are also a symbol of the two parties’ unity and struggle for the interests of the nation.
The blue star on the top left represents loyalty and integrity, and the red star on the bottom right represents the authority of the law. The cross-hair design is divided into four pieces, representing the junction of Panama in the four regions of South America, North America, Atlantic, and Pacific. Red, blue, and white are the colors of the American Stars and Stripes that support Panama’s independence. This flag was designed by Manuel Amador Guerrero, the first president of Panama.
The Panama National Emblem was inaugurated in 1904. The national emblem is a brown eagle with its head up and wings spread out.
A white ribbon with the Panama motto “For the benefit of the world” stands on the national emblem. In the middle of the national emblem is the brown Isthmus of Panama, the blue Pacific and Caribbean Seas, and the Panama Canal that connects them; The call for hard work; the horns spilled from the lower part of the gold coins and the golden two-winged flywheel symbolize the progress and prosperity of the country. The four national flags are decorated around the national emblem, and the top 9 golden five-pointed stars represent the 9 provinces of Panama.
The horned eagle is the national bird of Panama. It is the heaviest eagle among all eagles. This eagle has several erect feathers on its head, which looks like a horn from a distance, very mighty.
Long inflorescence orchid (pigeon orchid)
“Ode to the Isthmus “(Panama National Anthem)
Geronimo de la Oza
In this happy battlefield of the Federation, we finally won the victory.
Brilliance and brilliance are shining on you, how beautiful the new country is.
It is necessary to cover the past Calvary and the cross with curtains,
Let the harmonious and dazzling light decorate your blue sky.
Just progress in the melodious singing and touch your homeland,
Look at the two oceans roaring at your feet that is the support of the glorious mission.
The warm breeze gently kisses your earth decorated with flowers,
Brotherly friendship replaced the horn of war as the ruler.
In the past, only shovel and hammer accompanied our intense labor,
Therefore we are proud to live in the fertile land of Columbus.
As of 2017, the population of the Republic of Panama totaled 4.07 million. The population structure of Panama is very diverse. Indo-European mixed-race accounted for 65%, followed by African descent 12%, European descent 10%, Chinese 7%, and Indian 6%.
Age level Ratio, number of men and women
0-14 years old 28.6% (male 504726; female 484291)
15-64 years old 65.1% (male 1123777; female 1098661)
65 years old and above 5.5% (male 115425; female 133582)
Median age Gender and total age
Male 27.1 years old
Female 27.9 years old
Total population 27.5 years old
Population growth rate 1.435% Birth rate – 19.43/1000 people
Population mortality – 4.65/1000 people
Net migration rate -0.42/1000people fertility rate – 2.45 children/women
Male female Total population
75.02 years old 80.68 years old 77.79 years old
Panama’s current constitution took effect in 1972 and has been revised four times in 1978, 1983, 1994, and 2004. It provides for the separation of the three powers of the country. The president is the head of state, who is directly elected for a term of 5 years and cannot be re-elected, but he can run for another term. In 1994, Panama revised its constitution to abolish the army and establish the police force. In 2004, the constitution was revised again to change the name of the National Assembly to the National Assembly, and only one vice president was retained.
The Panamanian National Assembly is unicameral and exercises legislative power. It is composed of 71 members. Members are elected through direct elections for a term of 5 years. The current parliament was established on July 1, 2019. The seats held by all parties are as follows: Democratic Revolutionary Party (ruling party) 35 seats, Democratic Change Party 18 seats, Panamaist Party 8 seats, Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement Party 5 seats, 5 seats without party affiliation. The President of the National Assembly Marcos Castillero (Marcos Castillero, Democratic Revolutionary Party), was elected in July 2019 for a one-year term.
The current Panamanian government was established on July 1, 2019. The main members are Vice President and Minister of the Presidential Office José Cabriel Carrizo (José Cabriel Carrizo), Government Minister Carlos Romero (Carlos Romero) ),
Minister of Labor Doris Janes Zapata Acevedo (female, Doris Yaneth Zapata Acevedo), Minister of Industry and Commerce Ramón Eduardo Martínez de la Guardia, Minister of Housing and Land Management Nes Samudio de Gracia (female, Inés María Samudio de Gracia), Minister of Agriculture and Livestock Development Augusto Ramón Valderrama Barragán, Minister of Social Development Markova
Panamanian judicial power is exercised by the High Court and the General Prosecutor’s Office. There are 9 judges in the High Court, and the term of office is 10 years. Supreme Court President Hernan Leon (Hernán De León). Attorney General Ken Niya · Aesop de Mi Poser (female, Kenya Isolde Porcell).
political party- Ruling coalition
Panama has a multi-party system. The main political parties include:
1. The Democratic Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Democrático): the ruling party. Initiated by General Torrijos. The party was founded in March 1979. There are 507,000 party members. The current chairman Benicio Enacio Robinson (Benicio Enacio Robinson).
2. Democratic Change Party (Partido Cambio Democrático): opposition parties. The party was founded in May 1998. There are currently 352,000 party members. The current chairman Romulo Roux (Rómulo Roux).
3, Panameñista Party (Partido Panameñista): opposition parties. The party was founded in October 1931 and has been renamed many times. Since 2005, the current name has been used. He has been in power 9 times in history. There are 362,000 party members. The current chairman José Luis Varela (José Luis Varela).
Laurentino Cortizo Cohen: President. Born on January 30, 1953. Graduated from Texas State University, the USA with a Ph.D. in Commerce. He once worked in several private companies in Pakistan, involved in agriculture, animal husbandry, and the building materials industry.
He served as a member of the National Assembly from 1994 to 2004, including the first vice-chairman of the National Assembly from 1998 to 1999 and the chairman of the National Assembly from 2000 to 2001. Joined the Democratic Revolutionary Party in 2004 and served as Minister of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Development in the same year. In May 2019, he won the general election as a candidate of the Democratic Revolutionary Party and became president on July 1.
Panama’s overall economy is at a low level of development. Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries account for the livelihoods of the majority of the people. However, shipping-related companies and some financial and insurance industries have international status, resulting in a small number of super-rich classes and a large gap between rich and poor. Panama is rich in forest resources and has many tropical tree species. Mahogany, cedar, teak, and other woods are abundant in the east, providing a few internationally competitive export products.
Farmers use bananas, pineapples, sugar cane, coffee, and other tropical economic Subsistence crops. The industrial foundation is weak and there is no heavy industry. The manufacturing industry is mainly based on light industries such as the processing industry of agricultural and animal husbandry products and the industry of people’s livelihoods. Some low-tech household appliances can be self-made.
Copper and gold mines have large reserves, ranking the sixth largest copper mining country. In 2013, the output value of the ore mining industry reached 430 million U.S. dollars. There are theoretical reserves of oil and natural gas in the eastern rock formations, which have also become the focus of the international energy industry. focus, in terms of the general public, want to leave rural areas only one way into the city in the service industry, service output value reached 25.1 billion US dollars
transportation, and warehousing, and tourism is the source of the bulk of work opportunities, the Atlantic coast of Panama’s Port Lang (including MIT, CCT, Cristobal, And other three terminals) and the Balboa and PSA Panama ports on the Pacific coast. The container operation volume ranks first and second among the major ports in Central and South America. In the first quarter of the 2014 fiscal year, the tonnage of the Panama Canal hit a record high of 87.7 million tons in a single season.
The tourism industry has made rapid progress after 2010, and the government has also strengthened tourism construction. In 2013, it was ranked 37th among 140 countries and regions in the World Economic Forum and 4th in the Americas. Continued investment in the hotel industry and the holding of international trade shows have become the key targets of government support. After the opening of the Nicaragua Canal in the future, it will inevitably have an impact on Panama. The government intends to invest in strengthening business reception capabilities and financial service capabilities.
Given its important geographical location, Panama’s economy is focused on the service industry, mainly finance, trade, and tourism. Because Panama’s establishment and trade have an important relationship with the United States, Panama has used the U.S. dollar as its currency since 1907. Its national currency is the balboa, but it only issues 1 cent, 10 cents, 25 cents, and 50 cents. Equivalent and used in China at the same time. It is the first country outside the United States to use the U.S. dollar as legal tender.
Panama’s political situation is stable and its economic development momentum is good. Panama Canal shipping, regional financial center, Colon Free Trade Zone, and tourism are the four pillars of Panama’s economy, and the service industry occupies an important position in the national economy. In 2013, Panama’s GDP grew by 8.4%, which continued to lead the Latin American economy and became the fastest growing country in Latin America and the Caribbean for three consecutive years.
The main economic data of Panama in 2017: GDP: 40.177 billion US dollars, per capita GDP: 9871 US dollars, GDP growth rate: 5.4%, inflation rate: 0.88%, unemployment rate: 6%.
The latest macroeconomic data of Panama in 2016
GDP $5.19 billion
GDP per capita USD 13,600
GDP growth rate 4.9%, and the economic growth rates in the first to fourth quarters were 4.6%, 5.2%, 4.8%, and 4.5% respectively.
GDP growth rate (2011-2015) 11.8% (2011); 9.2% (2012); 6.6% (2013); 6.1% (2014); 5.8% (2015)
Trade volume (excluding Cologne Free Zone) 12.333 billion US dollars, a year-on-year decrease of 3.8%.
Export 636 million US dollars, a year-on-year decrease of 8.5%.
Import 11.697 billion US dollars, down 3.6% year-on-year.
Cologne Free Zone Trade Volume US$19.646 billion, a year-on-year decrease of 9.6%.
Import 9.218 billion US dollars, down 11.1% year-on-year.
Re-export USD 10.428 billion, a year-on-year decrease of 8.3%.
Panama Canal (FY2016)
The number of ships crossing the river 13,114 ships, down 5.5% year-on-year.
Cargo volume 204 million long tons, down 10.9% year-on-year.
River crossing fee income US$1.93 billion, a year-on-year decrease of 3.0%.
Consumer price index 1.50%
Foreign Direct Investment 5.209 billion US dollars, an increase of 15.9%.
Unemployment rate (August 2016) 5.50%
Panama has a weak industrial base and no heavy industry. Mainly include mining, manufacturing, construction, etc. The main industries are food processing, clothing processing, paper making, leather, and so on.
The main crops in Panama are rice, corn, beans, and bananas, sugar cane and coffee are the main cash crops.
Tourism is one of Panama’s important economic pillars. The Panama Canal, the Bridge of the Americas, the International Financial Center, and Contadora, known as the Pearl Island, are all well-known international tourist attractions. The local government attaches great importance to tourism investment. , And strive to improve the tourism industry. Among all domestic foreign exchange income, the amount of foreign exchange earned by tourism is second only to the Panama Canal and the Colon Free Zone. The tourist areas include the stepped gate of the Panama Canal, the tourist resort of Contadora, the San Blas Islands, and the Isle of Ray.
Panama’s main export targets are the United States, Germany, Costa Rica, Italy, and Puerto Rico; imports mainly come from the United States, Japan, Costa Rica, Germany, Venezuela, Ecuador, and so on. It mainly imports manufactured products, petroleum, and refined oil, transportation equipment, machinery and food, etc.; it mainly exports bananas, cane sugar, sea shrimp, coffee, and petroleum products.
The Colon Free Trade Zone is located at the Atlantic estuary of the Panama Canal. It was established in 1953. There are more than 1,550 companies specializing in re-export trade and 16 banks.
Panama is a well-known offshore registration place. Due to the importance of the Panama Canal, many ships are registered in Panama. Panama is also a well-known offshore registration center.
Commodity trade has a huge deficit over the years. In 2012, the export value was 822 million US dollars and the import value was 13.633 billion US dollars, an increase of 4.7% and 11.4% respectively. The main export products are tuna, shrimp, fish meal, coffee, bananas, etc. The main export targets are the United States, Sweden, Spain, Costa Rica, etc. The main imports are petroleum products, manufactured products, medicines, and food, etc. The imports are mainly from the United States, Cologne Free Zone, Japan, Costa Rica, and other places.
In 2017, Panama’s foreign trade totaled 34.38 billion U.S. dollars, of which exports were 12.47 billion U.S. dollars (including Cologne Free Trade Zone exports of 11.81 billion U.S. dollars) and imports were 21.91 billion U.S. dollars (including Cologne Free Trade Zone imports of 9.19 billion U.S. dollars), a year-on-year increase of 12.7%. , 25.3%, and 6.6%. The main imports are petroleum products, automobiles, mechanical and electrical products, pharmaceuticals, etc.
Panamanians are warm and hospitable in social activities regardless of their educational level. No matter who you are, you can go to other people’s homes as you like. The host will treat guests warmly, and the host and guest will have no strangeness. Just like family, the host does not want guests to pay any compensation. The Chocó’s of the Indians are particularly hospitable, kind-hearted, and show fanaticism under any circumstances.
On formal social occasions, they often shake hands when meeting guests, and between relatives and friends, they often give hugs when meeting, and when they meet acquaintances on the street, they will nod their heads as a gift. People from the place often ask you first when they answer the phone. Who, this is different from the habit of the European and American countries to declare their families first.
Panamanians like to keep the distance between the two parties closer when they talk. They think that this is the only way to look close to nature, otherwise, they will be cold and cold. They have some sign language, such as kissing fingertips to express compliment.
In Panama, when friends meet, they should greet “good morning”, “good afternoon”, “good night”, “hello”, “very happy to meet you” and so on according to the meeting time. At the same time of greeting, male friends should shake hands with each other, and female or heterosexual friends should hug and kiss the cheek in addition to shaking hands.
The composition of Panamanian names is the same as that of residents of Latin American countries such as Spain and Mexico, and the order is the first name, father’s last name, and mother’s last name. The community is most commonly called Mr. and MS . . . . For an adult man, it is called a husband, for a married adult woman, it is called a lady or a wife, and for an unmarried woman, it is called a miss.
In Panama, urban residents usually wear suits and shoes on informal occasions, and they are personable
Pina. Most of the wealthy have a garment called “Pollera”. “Pollera” is a tulle blouse made of high-quality white linen or high-quality linen. The blouse is decorated with appliques or embroidered vivid animal and plant patterns, hand-woven lace stitched on the crepe of the blouse, and a contrasting woolen line along the neckline, with knots on the front and back. The most typical clothing for rural residents is “Lower Missilla”. It is a long round neck shirt made of thin material.
Farmers like to wear straw hats and straw shoes. The clothing that rural women often wear is a calico dress. Indian costumes have their own national characteristics.
The marriage customs in Panama basically follow the Catholic tradition, and the national law provides for monogamy. The marriages and weddings of most Indians are also carried out and organized in accordance with Catholic customs, but some Indians still retain their own traditional practices.
Before the local people hold a formal wedding, the girls must go through a flowering ceremony of coming of age, which is proof that a woman will marry. During the ceremony, the whole village must present gifts and the woman’s parents will entertain the whole village. Every year there is a carnival called the meat festival. During the festival, people dressed up in gorgeous costumes and dressed up as various strange characters.
Panama’s political ceremonies are Western, and religious ceremonies are entirely Catholic, but some Indian peoples still retain their own national rituals. When some tribes hold festivals and expedition ceremonies, their chiefs have to dress up and decorate themselves with many feathers, while others decorate themselves with the paws of wild beasts.
Panamanian residents like to dance at ordinary times and during festivals. It is popular in carnivals and large-scale celebrations everywhere. In addition, Panamanians often carry out cockfighting, bullfighting, and horse racing competitions. They also like modern sports, such as football, baseball, rugby, basketball, volleyball, etc.
The taboos of Panamanian residents are basically the same as those of other Latin American countries. Women don’t like others to ask about her age. People hate to inquire about men’s and women’s private lives and wages. Panamanians think that the monthly “13” is the most unlucky day. . When contacting Panamanians, don’t talk about politics, the sovereignty of the Canal Zone, and the government’s foreign policy. When visiting Panama, you should not over-praise the same thing.
The main food of Panamanian residents is rice, followed by corn, beans, clivia, and bananas. “Gaucho” is Panama’s most famous ethnic dish, made with rice, beans, and meat. People also like to eat tortillas made of cornmeal and meat, bacon, and rice. The beverages that Panamanians often drink are Coca-Cola, Pepsi, and coffee.
Tap water in Panama can be consumed directly.
Panamanians like sweets and are used to desserts after meals. Western food is mainly beef, fish, and shrimp. Lunch is simple, at 12:30, and dinner is more formal at 20:00. The sanitary condition is good.
Panamanian chicken soup is an ordinary meal. Panamanians pay attention to five-flavored food. The more famous ones are rice and boiled red beans with meat. They like food called Sankocho very much, and the locals often entertain guests with it.
There are about 10 large-scale Chinese restaurants in the capital, all operated by overseas Chinese in Guangdong. Meals for informal banquets are about $8 per person. There is a 24-hour supermarket in the city center that supplies fruits, vegetables, and milk.
The traditional dress of Panamanians is that men wear long embroidered shirts and shorts and women wear
Printed dress or embroidered skirt. World-famous Panama hat is called multi Grieg fibers or textiles from Asian plants with black stripes or bars with the colored floral edge of upturned straw hat, native to Ecuador because the Panamanian foreign tourists see this kind of straw hat is often worn, so it is called a Panama hat.
The Panama hat is made from a plant called Dokia that originated in Ecuador. The most important feature is a soft hat delicate texture, feels like silk, which is wound into an oblique triangle -shaped cylinder, the fine collection box, and then open when worn, is still not deformed, no trace of wrinkles. This kind of straw hat is most common near the Panama Canal, so it is called a Panama hat. The most expensive Panama hat is more than RMB 13,000.
Panama does not have an army, and the national police, also known as the National Police Headquarters, is responsible for public order and national security. In 1989, the United States first imposed economic sanctions on Panama and then sent more than 50,000 troops to invade Panama. It captured the then top leader, accused him of corruption and participated in drug trafficking, and disbanded Panama’s national defense forces. The new Panamanian government no longer formed a regular army, and only retained a paramilitary force of 11,000 people.
Panama’s domestic transportation is mainly roads. As of 2013, the total length of Panama’s national roads is 11384.41 kilometers.
Panama is a big shipping country, and the Panama Canal is responsible for 5% of the world’s trade freight. There are 15 large and small ports in Panama. The port of Cristobal is the largest port, and the port of Balboa is the second largest port. These two major ports account for 75% of Panama’s international trade and transportation. Valmont Port is a fishing port.
Panama is one of the Latin American air transport centers, the largest Tocumen (formerly Omar Torrijos ) International Airport, which can take off and land more than 100 aircraft every day.
Panama implements compulsory education for children aged 6-15. The University of Panama, a higher education institution, was established in 1935 with a campus in Panama City. In addition, there are Technical University, University of Santa Maria, and the University of Isthmus.
In the mountainous provinces where Panama’s indigenous people are concentrated, such as Niukou Province, Dalian Province, and Zambales, malaria has occurred, and it is rare in urban areas. There are occasional cases of infectious diseases such as hemorrhagic dengue fever and conjunctivitis; due to the hot climate, adults have eczema and skin diseases. No bird flu outbreak has been detected in this area.
The level of health and medical care in Panama City is fair. Except for emergencies, appointments are generally required in advance. However, the place has a poor concept of punctuality, long waiting times, and the high cost of diagnosis and treatment. The private hospital registration fee is 30-40 US dollars. Those who have a formal job can join the Panamanian social insurance system, which has larger discounts.
Panamanian residents like to dance at ordinary times and during festivals. “Snare drum “dance is a primitive folk dance, which has always been loved by people. It is popular in carnivals and large-scale celebrations everywhere. In addition, Panamanians often carry out cockfighting, bullfighting, and horse racing competitions. They also like modern sports, such as football, baseball, rugby, basketball, volleyball, etc.
The main newspapers in Panama are “News”, “Panama America”, “Free Tribune” (a sister newspaper of “Panama America”), as well as “Century News” and “Panama Star”. There are 95 radio stations in Panama, most of which are commercial stations; there are 5 TV stations, namely Panama Radio Broadcasting Corporation TV, Isthmus TV, Educational TV, Airwave TV, and National TV.
Panama pursues a neutral and non-aligned foreign policy. Foreign policy at this stage
The basic goals of the company are: to maintain the sovereignty and independence of the country, to maintain democracy; to maintain the neutrality of the canal; to carry out international cooperation that is conducive to the development of the country, to attach importance to the development of relations with the United States, the European Union, Japan, Russia, India, and other major countries; to widely attract foreign investment, Expansion of exports through free trade agreements.
In international affairs, Pakistan advocates peaceful coexistence, respect for human rights and sustainable development, resolves international conflicts through multilateralism, and advocates relying on the role of the United Nations to resolve regional conflicts.
Panama is an important international organization such as the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the Group of 77, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Community of Latin American and the Caribbean States, the Organization of American States, the Latin American Economic System, and the Organization for Central American Integration
. A member of the regional organization, an associate member of the Central American Common Market, a candidate member of the Latin American “Pacific Alliance” and an observer of the Trans-Pacific Strategic Partnership Agreement.
Pursue a neutral and non-aligned foreign policy. The basic goals are: to maintain the sovereignty and independence of the country, to maintain democracy; to maintain the neutral status of the canal; to carry out international cooperation that is conducive to the development of the country, and to promote relations with the United States, the European Union, Japan, Russia, India, etc.; to attract foreign investment extensively through negotiation Free trade agreements expand exports.
In international affairs, Pakistan advocates dialogue and reconciliation and advocates relying on the United Nations and multilateralism to resolve conflicts.
Relations with China
The Republic of Panama, June 12, 2017
China has established diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China and promised not to have any official relations with Taiwan and to conduct any official exchanges with Taiwan authorities. On the 13th, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi held talks with Panamanian Vice President and Foreign Minister De Saint-Malo in Beijing and signed the “Joint Communiqué between the two countries.
On September 17, 2017 (local time), Foreign Minister Wang Yi and Panamanian President Varela attended the inauguration ceremony of the Chinese Embassy in Panama in Panama City.
On November 16, 2017, the Panamanian Embassy in China was officially inaugurated. Panamanian President Varela personally attended the opening ceremony. Chinese and Pakistani officials, including Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi, Assistant Foreign Minister Qin Gang, Chinese Ambassador to Panama Wei Qiang, and Panamanian Ambassador to China Shi Kefang also witnessed this historical moment.
In addition to attending the unveiling ceremony of the Panamanian Embassy in China, at the invitation of President Xi Jinping, President Varela of the Republic of Panama will also pay a state visit to China from the 16th to the 22nd of this month.
Economic and Trade Relations
Since 1994, China has organized a delegation to participate in the Panama International Fair every year and has held 11 trade fairs in Pakistan.
Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi Attends the Opening Ceremony of the Chinese Embassy in Panama
According to the statistics of China Customs, the trade volume between China and Pakistan in 2012 was 15.411 billion U.S. dollars, of which China’s exports were 15.358 billion U.S. dollars and imports were 53.053 million U.S. dollars, an increase of 5.48%, 5.4%, and 23.8% respectively.
China mainly exports light industry and textiles, fuel oil, rubber and plastic shoes, computer and communication products to Pakistan, and imports fish meal, scrap metal, cement, and leather from Pakistan.
Relations with the United States
The relationship between Panama and the United States occupies a special place in Panama’s foreign relations. 1964
Pakistan and the United States broke off diplomatic relations in January of the same year and resumed diplomatic relations in April of the same year. The US military invaded Panama in 1989. After the Ndala government was established, the United States recognized it and announced the lifting of economic sanctions on Panama. The American Development Bank resumed aid to Panama. In December of the same year, all American troops withdrew to the Canal Zone.
The Panamanian Parliament approved the return of the US peace forces to Panama. In April 1991, the United States and Pakistan signed an agreement on mutual legal assistance. In August, an agreement was signed to reschedule the US$107 million in debt to the United States. The United States also decided to invest US$200 million to participate in the “Snake Bend Channel” project to widen the canal. In the first two years of the Ndala government, the United States has provided Panama with US$461 million in aid.
After the US military invaded Panama in December 1989, most Latin American countries condemned it and did not recognize the Ndala government. Panama has tense relations with Mexico, Peru, Ecuador, and other countries because of the political asylum issue during the Noriega period. Panama has taken the initiative to improve its relations with Latin American countries in order to get rid of its international isolation. In particular, Panama has no extradition regulations.
The Panama Canal connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans from south to north, and is known as the “Bridge of the World “. Panama’s geographical location makes it a strategic location. The Panama Canal is a world-famous waterway.
Tourism is one of the important pillar industries of Panama’s economy. The Panama Canal, the Bridge of the Americas, the International Financial Center, and Contadora, known as the “Pearl Island”, are all renowned international tourist attractions. Panama Canal’s Gatun Lake beautiful scenery is the world’s largest artificial Lake Park.
Panama City is on the edge of Panama Bay and backed by the Ankang Valley. . It is a picturesque Haikou city facing the sea and the mountains. Panama City is not big, butterflies fluttering on both sides of the street, and tree shadows whirling. Classical Spanish, modern high-rise buildings, and colorful Indian buildings dot this beautiful city. Panama is named after the Indians, which means “Fish Land”. The old city contains many monuments of Panama City. In the center of the old district is Independence Square.
Around the square, there are two towering Catholic churches, and the headquarters of the French when they built the canal. On the south side of Place de France, there is an obelisk built to commemorate the French workers who built the canal, and a judicial building built in the colonial era.
The white ancient building Panama’s Presidential Palace was originally the residence of the governor in the Spanish colonial era and is known as the “Heron Palace”. When you come to Panama, you must visit the Panama Canal. This is a “water bridge” between the Atlantic and the Pacific, like an elegant blue ribbon, connecting North America and South America.
Panama City is a picturesque Haikou city with mountains and seas. The streets are straight and tidy. Antique churches, castles, and modern buildings with novel styles are interlaced with each other, surrounded by green trees and surrounded by flowers and plants, which is pleasing to the eye. The city is divided into two parts: the old district and the new district.
The streets of the old district are narrow, and some Spanish castles and houses with terraces have been preserved. The new district has neat streets and wide roads, with large areas of modern buildings, modern high-rise buildings, and new garden houses.
There are many tourist destinations in Panama City, including Panama Canal Museum, San Francisco Church, National Theater, Anthropology Museum, Ethnographic Museum, etc.
The Gulf of Panama on the edge of Panama City is also a beautiful place. The Gulf of Panama is a bay in the Pacific Ocean south of the Central Isthmus of Panama and east of the Azuero Peninsula. It is 185 kilometers east and west at its widest point and 161 kilometers long from north to south. The coast is cut into several small bays, with San Miguel Bay in the east, Parita Bay in the west, and Panama Bay in the north. The waters of the Panama Gulf are calm, with dense islands, lush forests on the shore, beautiful flowers and plants, and an elegant environment.
Plaza de France, Panama
There is a monument (praising the French technicians who successfully built the canal) and the obelisk on the Plaza de France in Panama. This French technician has made great contributions to the development of Panama and opened up a new chapter for Panama, even the entire North and South America, and even the world’s water transportation industry.
The buildings facing the square, in addition to the court, there is a judicial building built in the colonial era. The white ancient building is the Presidential Palace of Panama. There are often herons standing around the fountain in front of the door, so it is called it. In addition, there are many colonial buildings. These buildings were built along the coast of the Caribbean Sea to protect against pirates. They were part of the city wall. These colonial buildings have historical significance and cultural connotations, reflecting the history of Panamanian people’s courage to resist pirates.
The Panama Canal is located in the middle of the American continent and runs through the Isthmus of Panama. It is a ditch.
A lock canal connecting the Pacific and Atlantic. The Panama Canal is located at the narrowest point in North and South America. It reduces the route to bypass South America and has an important strategic position. The length of the canal is 81.3 kilometers, the narrowest point is 152 meters, the width is 152-304 meters, and the water depth is 13.5-26.5 meters.
The area covered by the 16.09 kilometers extending from the central line of the canal to both sides is the Panama Canal Zone with a total area of 1432 square kilometers. The navigation of the canal shortened the voyage between the Pacific and the Atlantic by 16,000 kilometers. Gatun Lake in the canal has beautiful scenery and is the largest artificial lake in the world. The port of Balboa at the entrance of the Panama Canal is also crowded with tourists.
According to the ” U.S.-Pakistan Treaty ” signed between the United States and Panama in 1903, the United States paid a lump-sum payment of 10 million U.S. dollars and then paid a rent of 250,000 U.S. dollars a year after 9 years to obtain the canal excavation and “permanent use, occupation, and control” of the canal. And the right to the canal area. In 1904, construction of the canal started, and it was officially opened to navigation on August 15, 1914.
The Panama Canal plays an important role in Panama’s economy and the world economy. The Panama Canal carries 5% of the world’s trade freight.
Panama City Archaeological Site and Historic Areas of Panama
The archaeological site of Panama City and the historic districts of Panama blends the styles of early Spain, France, and the United States, maintaining the typical style of early streets. The Spanish conqueror Pajoros Delle established the original Panama City in 1519 in a small Indian fishing village.
Panama City has almost become a kaleidoscope city, inhabited by people from all parts of the world. The collision and fusion of history and modernity can be found everywhere in the city. This is reflected in its three components: the ancient city, the old city, and the new city. Passing through history and staying from the forest are the Cathedral of Our Lady, San Jose Monastery, Old City Hall, Slave Market, San Juan Hospital, and so on. These are all historical testimonies of Panama City, known as the “Queen of the Pacific.” There are also traditional handicrafts that have been preserved.
There is a museum in the place of the ancient city. The old city, also known as the colonial area, was rebuilt in 1673. It is a testament to the colonial period. Buildings, alleys, stone streets, churches, and museums coexist in three styles: Spanish, French, and Italian. French style and neoclassical style are particularly prominent, and the famous low arch and archbishop church are here. The prisons of the Spanish colonial period have now become art gardens, theaters, restaurants, etc., as well as the Sagi Palace and the San Jose Church with a large golden altar.
Talamanka Yangzhi-La Amistad Reserve
The Talamancayangzi-La Amistad Reserve covers an area of more than 800,000 hectares, located in Central America, at the junction of Costa Rica and Panama. The reserve is where the Quaternary glaciers left traces. The flora and fauna of North and South America live together here, and the tropical rain forest covers most of the reserve. Four different Indian tribes live on this land, and they profit from the close cooperation between Costa Rica and Panama.
Due to the climatic characteristics and the fertility of the soil, the area presents a colorful topography and forms many different habitats. In the Talamanca Yangzhi-Amistad Reserve, you can enjoy the cloud forest, the scenery of Lilliput, the desolate valley, the descendants of Sibu, and the holy bird worshipped by the Aztecs. In addition to natural wonders, there are plenty of ancient cultural relics in this area. Currently, more than 200 sites have been discovered, including tombs, stone pillars, prehistoric rock paintings, etc., covering more than 12,000 years of history.
Darien National Park
Darien National Park is located at the junction of the eastern part of Panama’s Darien Province and Colombia. There is a bridge between Southern and North America. The park covers an area of 597,000 hectares and provides a special and varied place-beaches, rocky coasts, mangroves, swamps and depressions, and tropical jungles on the ground, among which weird wild plants grow.
Darien Forest is the most diverse feature of tropical America’s ecosystem, and it has hardly been disturbed by any outsiders so far. The sandy beach and rocky coast are enough to let people enjoy the sea breeze, the white waves hitting the shore, and the vast sea scenery; when you step into the tropical jungle of the park, you can not only enjoy the beauty of nature but also a large number of precious wild animals.
Darien National Park is home to a large number of wild animals. Many animals in the park are rare in the world, especially some endangered wild animals, such as jaguars, red monkeys, tapirs, Central American caiman, American alligators, Capybara, and others live here. In addition, there are bush dogs, large anteaters, jaguars, tiger cats, night monkeys, howling monkeys, and spider monkeys with brown heads.
Contadora is a small island in Panama, and it is difficult to find its Fangshu on ordinary maps. However, the name “Contadora” often appears in the newspapers recently, making this tiny place famous. Contadora Island is an international financial center and is known as the “Pearl Island”. It is a prestigious international tourist attraction. Contadora Island is located about 56 kilometers from the entrance to the Pacific side of the Panama Canal. It is a beautiful and vibrant island in the Republic of Panama.
Between the blue sea and blue sky, a group of beautiful scenery suddenly unfolded; the star-studded Pearl Islands, vying for wonder and show, jumped into view. The green waves, white sands, coconut groves, and bushes on Contadora Island are beautiful. Contadora Island has long attracted tourists from all over the world with its beautiful scenery and pleasant climate, but it is now well-known, but the Contadora Group, which insists on striving for peace in Central America, was born on this island.
In January 1983, the foreign ministers of Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia, and Panama from Central America held a meeting on Contadora Island and put forward the initiative of “peaceful settlement of conflicts in Central America”. Later, the foreign ministers of the four countries often collectively came forward to mediate the conflicts between the Central American countries, which was called the “Contadora Group.” Contadora Island often appears in newspapers and magazines for this reason, and is known to the people of the world.
Coiba Island National Park and its special marine reserve
Coiba Island National Park is far away from the southwest coast of Panama, protecting Coiba Island, 38 small islands, and the surrounding seas in Chiriqui Bay. The Pacific rainforest in Coiba has not been affected by cold winds and El Niño. Due to the continuous evolution of new species, it contains extremely high levels of endemic mammals, birds, and plants. This is the last of many endangered animals like the crown eagle. Shelter.
This is an important natural laboratory for scientists to conduct research and provides a key link in the ecology of the hot eastern Pacific for the transfer and survival of pelagic fish and marine mammals. Coiba Island National Park provides shelter for 760 species of marine fish, 37 species of sharks, and 20 species of whales, and is known as a “biological treasure house”.
Bridge of the Americas
The Bridge of the Americas (formerly known as the Sacher Ferry Bridge) is a road bridge in Panama that spans the Pacific Ocean at the entrance of the Panama Canal. The Bridge of the Americas was built in 1962 at a cost of 20 million U.S. dollars. Before the Centennial Bridge was completed and opened to traffic in 2004, the Bridge of the Americas was a bridge connecting North and South America.
The Bridge of the Americas is 1,653 meters in length, flying across the canal on both sides of the canal, and the steel frame bulges upward in an arch, like a dragon on the Weizhen Canal. Cars passing on the bridge, it only takes a few minutes to reach North America from South America. It can be seen that Panama City has a unique geographical location.
According to statistics, about 40,000 cars pass by every day, and many ships pass under the bridge. There are some small stalls near Qiaotou, selling a variety of local tourist souvenirs, including the famous Panama hats. This bridge is an impressive structure, with a constant stream of people under the bridge. Throughout the day, many ships will pass under the bridge to enter or leave the Panama Canal.
As of 2008, there are 6 world heritage sites in Panama
- 1 Panama Friendship National Park Natural heritage
- Bocas Del Toro Province
- 2 Portobello fortifications Cultural heritage Cologne
- 3 San Lorenzo fortifications Cultural heritage Cologne
- 4 Panama City Historic District, Bolivar University
- Cultural heritage
- 5 Coiba Island National Park Natural heritage Veraguas
- 6 Darien National Park Natural heritage Darien